Welcome to Crypto Glossary

Guide to the terminology and jargon of cryptocurrency

Explore definitions, explanations, and examples to deepen your understanding of this revolutionary technology, from blockchain fundamentals to the latest decentralized finance (DeFi) trends.

Crypto Glossary

0x Protocol:
0x stands as an innovative Ethereum-based platform facilitating cryptocurrency exchanges in a decentralized manner. It empowers the creation of features within decentralized exchanges (DEXs), wallets, or marketplaces.
1hr denotes data covering the past hour.
24hr signifies data encompassing the previous 24 hours.
30d represents data spanning the last 30 days.
401(k) Plan:
A 401(k) plan serves as a retirement savings initiative sponsored by US companies, wherein employees contribute a portion of their income, matched by their employer.
51% Attack:
A 51% attack occurs when a single person or entity controls over half of the computer power or mining hash rate on a network, potentially compromising its integrity.
52-Week High/Low:
A 52-week high and low denote the maximum and minimum market prices of a particular asset observed over a year.
52-Week Range:
A 52-week range delineates the fluctuation between the highest and lowest prices of an asset within the past year.
7d refers to data spanning the last 7 days.


Abenomics encompasses the economic strategy spearheaded by Shinzo Abe of Japan, comprising monetary policy, fiscal stimulus, and structural reforms.
Abnormal Return:
Abnormal return signifies atypical profits derived from specific assets or securities over a designated period.
Absolute Advantage:
Absolute advantage denotes a scenario wherein a company can produce the same product as competitors using fewer resources.
Absolute Return:
Absolute return pertains to the investment gain or loss attained within a specified timeframe.
Abstract denotes something existing as an idea or concept.
Abstraction Scalability:
Abstraction scalability denotes the enhancement of a system's capacity, enabling programming components to function as building blocks in new developmental environments.
Accepting Risk (Acceptance):
Accepting risk, or risk acceptance, denotes a risk management strategy wherein companies acknowledge certain risks associated with events instead of allocating resources to mitigate them.
An account serves as a repository tracking the financial activities of a specific asset.
Account Abstraction:
Account abstraction streamlines user interaction with the blockchain by customizing elements of smart contract accounts.
Account Balance:
Account balance refers to the immediate accessible amount in a bank or cryptocurrency account. In accounting, it represents the difference between all debit and credit transactions.
Account Number:
An account number is a unique string of numbers (and sometimes letters) used to identify a specific bank account and its holder.
Accountability denotes the readiness to assume responsibility for one's actions.
Accounting Conservatism:
Accounting conservatism entails recognizing future expenses and liabilities immediately during volatile situations, rather than future assets and revenues.
Accounting Method:
An accounting method comprises a set of rules governing the recording of revenue and expenses within an organization.
Accounting Token:
Accounting tokens are tokenized credit or debit entries, akin to a spreadsheet-based accounting system.
Accredited Investors:
Accredited investors are individuals or entities qualified to engage in financial opportunities not available to regular investors.
Accretion (of a Discount):
Accretion of a discount refers to the gain resulting from the disparity between the discounted purchase price and the asset's face value.
Accrual Accounting:
Accrual accounting records revenues and expenses when they occur, irrespective of actual payment.
Accrue denotes the accumulation of interest, income, or expenses over time.
Accrued Income:
Accrued income represents earned income yet to be received, following the accrual method of accounting.
Accrued Interest:
Accrued interest denotes the amount owed or payable on a debt or financial obligation on a specified date.
Accrued Liabilities:
Accrued liabilities refer to financial obligations pending crediting to a company's bank accounts, awaiting invoice receipts.
Accrued Revenue:
Accrued revenue arises when businesses record sales without receiving payment at the time of sale.
Accumulation Phase:
The accumulation phase occurs after a market downtrend, characterized by institutional investors gradually purchasing assets, indicating an upcoming uptrend.
Accumulation/Distribution Indicator:
The accumulation/distribution indicator gauges the supply and demand levels of a stock, asset, or cryptocurrency by multiplying the closing price with volume.
Acid Test Ratio:
The acid test ratio assesses a company's ability to fulfill current liabilities with its most liquid assets.
Acquisition entails purchasing a controlling stake in another company.
Acquisition Cost:
Acquisition cost reflects the total cost of acquiring a company's property or assets, adjusted for incentives and expenses.
Acquisition Premium:
Acquisition premium refers to the difference between the purchase price of a company and its market value.
Active Management:
Active management involves ongoing portfolio management by a manager or team.
Activist Investor:
An activist investor seeks to acquire a controlling stake in a company to instigate changes.
Adam Back:
Adam Back is a prominent British cryptographer and crypto industry figure.
Adaptive State Sharding:
Adaptive State Sharding, utilized by Elrond, combines various sharding types to enhance communication and performance.
An address serves as a destination for sending and receiving cryptocurrencies, represented by a string of alphanumeric characters.
Administrative Expenses:
Administrative expenses encompass costs incurred by an organization, including staff benefits, rent, and managerial compensation.
Adoption Curve:
The adoption curve illustrates the rate at which a new technology is embraced by consumers.
Advance/Decline Line (A/D Line):
The A/D line tracks the difference between advancing and declining issues in the stock market on a daily basis.
Aeternity Blockchain:
Aeternity is a blockchain network employing a hybrid consensus mechanism incorporating Proof of Work and Proof of Stake.
Affiliate denotes a connection between firms wherein one holds a minor stake in the other.
Affiliate Marketing:
Affiliate marketing entails paying individuals or entities commissions for promoting goods and services to boost sales.
Agency Problem:
The agency problem refers to the challenge of aligning an agent's interests with those of the principal.
Agency Theory:
Agency theory explores establishing relationships to minimize disputes between agents and principals.
An agent is authorized to represent a business and enter into contracts on its behalf.
Aggregate Demand:
Aggregate demand reflects the total demand for goods and services within an economy.
Aggressive Investment Strategy:
An aggressive investment strategy seeks maximum returns through high-risk ventures.
AI Coins:
AI coins facilitate AI-related transactions using blockchain technology, ensuring transparency and security.
Air Gap:
An air gap refers to isolating data to prevent it from being accessed or corrupted.
Airdrop entails distributing specific cryptocurrencies or tokens to an audience as part of a marketing campaign.
Airnode serves as an oracle node and API blockchain gateway for engaging in the API3 blockchain protocol.
Alan Greenspan:
Alan Greenspan served as the chairman of the US Federal Reserve from 1987 to 2006.
Algo-Trading (Algorithmic Trading):
Algo-trading automates trading based on predefined rules or algorithms.
An algorithm outlines a set of rules for solving problems or executing tasks, typically by a computer.
Algorithmic Market Operations (AMOs):
AMOs automate the control of algorithmic stablecoin supply, enhancing scalability and transparency.
Algorithmic Stablecoin:
Algorithmic stablecoins adjust their supply based on market conditions to maintain stability.
All Risks Coverage:
All risks coverage provides insurance against any risks not explicitly omitted in the contract.
All-Time-High (ATH):
ATH denotes the highest historical price reached by a cryptocurrency.
All-Time-Low (ATL):
ATL signifies the lowest historical price of a cryptocurrency.
Allocated Gold:
Allocated gold refers to physical gold ownership stored in a secure vault.
Allocation assigns equity or tokens to specific entities.
Allocation Efficiency:
Allocation efficiency optimizes resource distribution within an organization.
Allotment distributes resources systematically within a business.
Alpha indicates investment performance relative to a benchmark index.
Alpha Version:
Alpha version represents an initial release of software for testing.
Alphanumeric combines letters and numerals in a phrase.
Altcoin refers to cryptocurrencies other than Bitcoin.
Altcoin Trader:
An altcoin trader specializes in trading alternative cryptocurrencies.
Alternative Investments:
Alternative investments offer diverse risk-adjusted returns beyond traditional investments.
Amalgamation involves merging distinct organizations into one entity.
Amazon S3:
Amazon S3 provides scalable and cost-effective cloud storage services.
Amended Return:
An amended return revises an original tax return.
AMLD5 is the European Union's directive aimed at combating money laundering.
Anarcho-capitalism advocates for minimal government intervention, embraced by some in the crypto community.
Anchoring and Adjustment:
Anchoring influences decision-making based on preconceived notions.
aNFT (Autonomous NFT):
aNFTs are programmable non-fungible tokens capable of initiating transactions.
Angel Investor:
An angel investor financially supports startups.
Animal Spirits:
Animal spirits drive economic behavior, influenced by psychological factors.
Annual Percentage Rate (APR):
APR reflects the yearly interest rate on a loan.
Annual Percentage Yield (APY):
APY measures the rate of return on an investment over a year.
Annual Report:
An annual report provides insights into a company's financial performance and prospects.
Annualized Rate of Return:
Annualized return tracks investment performance over time.
Anonymous means unknown or unnamed.
Anti-dump/Anti-Dumping Policy:
Anti-dump policies prevent pump and dump schemes in the blockchain space.
Anti-fragile assets perform better under volatility and stress.
Anti-malware protects against malicious software and cyber threats.
Anti-Money Laundering (AML):
AML laws combat money laundering through cryptocurrencies.
Antitrust Law:
Antitrust laws prevent unfair competition and monopolistic practices.
Antivirus software safeguards against malicious software.
Antpool is a prominent Bitcoin mining pool.
Apeing involves impulsive buying of tokens post-project launch.
API facilitates interaction between software components.
Application Layer:
The application layer is the topmost layer of the OSI model.
AR Token (Arweave):
AR is the native token of Arweave.
Arbitrage exploits price differences in various markets.
Arbitrage Pricing Theory (APT):
APT identifies arbitrage opportunities in financial markets.
Arbitrageurs capitalize on pricing inefficiencies between markets.
Arm Virtual Machine (Qtum):
Qtum's arm virtual machine enables decentralized application execution.
Aroon Indicator:
Aroon identifies market trends and strengths.
Ascending Channel:
Ascending channels indicate upward price trends.
Ashdraked denotes total loss due to shorting Bitcoin.
ASICs are specialized devices for mining cryptocurrencies.
ASIC-resistant blockchains level the playing field for miners.
Ask Price:
Ask price is the minimum price a seller accepts.
Assets generate revenue or benefits for an organization.
Asset Class:
Asset classes categorize investments based on common traits.
Asset Financing:
Asset financing facilitates asset acquisition through lending.
Asset Swap:
Asset swap involves exchanging assets for various purposes.
Asset-Backed Tokens:
Asset-backed tokens represent physical assets.
Asset-Based Approach:
Asset-based valuation considers a company's assets.
Asset-Based Lending:
Asset-based lending relies on asset value for financing.
Assets Under Management (AUM):
AUM represents the total value of managed funds.
Astroturfing disguises sponsored messages as genuine community feedback.
Asynchronous events occur at different rates.
Atomic Swap:
Atomic swaps enable peer-to-peer cryptocurrency trading.
AtomicDEX offers a wallet and decentralized exchange.
Attestation Ledger:
An attestation ledger validates transactions.
An auction involves selling assets through bidding.
An audit verifies the integrity of systems and applications.
An auditor conducts audits to ensure compliance.
Augmented Reality (AR):
AR enhances real-world experiences with digital information.
Authentication confirms a user's identity for system access.
Authority Masternode (VeChain):
Authority masternodes support the VeChainThor network.
Automated Market Maker (AMM):
AMMs provide liquidity through automated trading.
Autonomous Economic Agent (AEA):
AEAs act independently for economic gain.
Average Annual Growth Rate (AAGR):
AAGR measures investment growth over time.
Average Annual Return (AAR):
AAR calculates average returns over a period.
Average Daily Trading Volume (ADTV):
ADTV reflects daily trading activity.
Average Directional Index (ADX):
ADX gauges market trend strength.
Average Return:
Average return denotes mean investment performance.
Average Selling Price (ASP):
ASP represents the average sale price of an item.


Back-to-Back Letters of Credit:
Sequentially utilizing two letters of credit to facilitate a financial transaction via an intermediary is known as back-to-back letters of credit.
Backflush Costing (Backflush Accounting):
A method of accounting that allocates costs to products after production completion.
An accumulation of pending tasks within an organization.
An order that cannot be fulfilled immediately due to product unavailability.
An insurance agreement safeguarding unsubscribed shares or serving as an alternative funding source.
Utilizing historical data to simulate cryptocurrency trading strategy performance.
Backward Compatibility:
Allowing new technology to seamlessly interact with older versions.
Slang for a large amount of a specific cryptocurrency or an individual's crypto portfolio contents.
An investor retaining large amounts of a coin regardless of its performance.
A relief measure for heavily indebted financial institutions, where stakeholders bear some burden.
Capital injection to prevent an entity's financial collapse.
Bait and Switch Scam:
Attracting customers with low prices but urging them to buy higher-priced items later.
Participants in Tezos' block-appending process.
Tezos' method of appending new transaction blocks.
Balanced Fund:
Mutual fund containing both stocks and bonds.
Balanced Investment Strategy:
Strategy aiming to balance portfolio return and risk.
Balloon Loan:
A loan with a large final payment at the end of the term.
Balloon Payment:
A substantial payment due at the end of a balloon loan.
Bandwagon Effect:
Decision-making influenced by majority opinion.
Data capacity available for network transactions.
Bank for International Settlements (BIS):
Institution promoting global monetary stability.
Bank Run:
Mass withdrawal from a bank due to solvency fears.
Banking as a Service (BaaS):
Offering bank APIs for third-party financial service development.
Banking Secrecy Act (BSA):
Legislation preventing money laundering.
Inability to meet financial obligations.
Bar Chart:
Graphical representation of financial data.
Basis Point:
Unit measuring financial interest rate changes.
Collection of managed digital currencies.
Basket of Goods:
Measure assessing consumer goods prices.
Batch Auctions:
Simultaneous execution of grouped orders.
Bayes’ Theorem:
Statistical tool calculating event probabilities.
Beacon Chain:
Ethereum 2.0's chain coordinating shard chains.
Market participant expecting price declines.
Bear Call Spread:
Vertical spread with different call rates.
Bear Hug:
Hostile takeover attempt with higher-than-market offers.
Bear Market:
Market with declining asset prices.
Bear Trap:
Manipulative price drop followed by recovery.
Large holder driving prices down.
Behavioral Finance:
Study of psychological effects on financial decisions.
Comparison of asset performance.
Benchmark Index:
Standard market index.
Benefit-Cost Ratio:
Viability measure in cost-benefit analysis.
BEP-2 (Binance Chain Tokenization Standard):
Technical standard for Binance Chain tokens.
Token standard extending ERC-20.
Binance Smart Chain NFT standard.
BEP-95 (Bruno Hard Fork Upgrade):
Binance Evolution Protocol upgrade.
Beta (Release):
Pre-release software testing stage.
Bid Price:
Buyer's proposed price.
Bid-Ask Spread:
Difference between buy and sell prices.
Big Tech:
Top technological corporations.
Binance Chain Explorer:
BNB Chain information platform.
Binance Labs:
Incubator for blockchain startups.
Binance Launchpad:
Project fundraising platform.
Binary Code:
Digital data representation.
Basic computing information unit.
Bitcoin 3.0:
Evolutionary mining phase.
Bitcoin ATM (BTM):
Automated Bitcoin buying/selling machine.
Bitcoin DApps:
Decentralized Bitcoin applications.
Bitcoin Dominance (BTCD):
Bitcoin's share of the crypto market.
Bitcoin ETF:
Exchange-traded Bitcoin fund.
Bitcoin Halving:
Reduced block reward event.
Bitcoin Improvement Proposal (BIP):
Bitcoin protocol change proposal.
Bitcoin Misery Index (BMI):
Investor sentiment index.
Bitcoin NFTs:
Bitcoin-based non-fungible tokens.
Bitcoin Pizza:
Famous Bitcoin purchase.
Bitcoin Virtual Machine (BitVM):
Proposed Bitcoin smart contract system.
Bitcoin enthusiast.
Top Bitcoin forum.
NY virtual currency license.
Bitcoin payment processor.
Bitcoin subdivision unit.
FPGA configuration data.
Black Hat Hacker:
Malicious cyber attacker.
Black Swan Event:
Unpredicted impactful event.
Black-Scholes Model:
Options pricing formula.
Decred hash algorithm.
Blockchain transaction unit.
Block Explorer:
Blockchain data viewer.
Block Header:
Block identification data.
Block Height:
Blockchain block count.
Block Lattice (Nano):
Individual blockchain network.
Block Producer:
Blockchain validator.
Block Reward:
Mining incentive.
Block Size:
Blockchain data capacity.
Block Time:
Block creation duration.
Block Trade:
Large off-market securities trade.
Distributed ledger system.
Blockchain 1.0:
Original blockchain focus.
Blockchain 2.0:
Enhanced blockchain features.
Blockchain 3.0:
Final blockchain stage.
Blockchain Explorer:
Blockchain data search tool.
Blockchain Mutual Credit:
Stablecoin creation framework.
Blockchain Transmission Protocol (BTP):
Cross-chain settlement protocol.
Blockchain Tribalism:
Community alignment with blockchains.
Blockchain Trilemma:
Decentralization, security, scalability issues.
Blockchain-As-a-Service (BaaS):
Outsourced blockchain tech.
Blockchain-Enabled Smart Locks:
Secured by blockchain locks.
Interconnected blockchain data storage.
Bluesky Crypto Protocol:
Twitter-backed decentralized protocol.
Bollinger Band:
Technical analysis tool.
Bonding Curve:
Asset-price relationship curve.
Automated software.
Capacity limitation point.
Cryptocurrency task reward.
Brave Browser:
Privacy-focused web browser.
Bitcoin Cash token standard.
Forward compatibility loss.
Brian Armstrong:
Coinbase founder.
Blockchain interoperability tech.
Browser Extension:
Internet browser plugin.
Brute Force Attack (BFA):
Password guessing attack.
Overvalued asset state.
Bug Bounty:
Software vulnerability reward.
Bug Exploit:
Security flaw attack.
Optimistic market participant.
Bull Market:
Asset price growth period.
Bull Run:
Market price surge.
Bull Trap:
False market reversal.
Token destruction.
Buy The (F*******) Dip (BTD/BTFD):
Buy low strategy.
Buy Wall:
Large buy order.
Byron Phase:
Early Cardano phase.
Byzantine Fault Tolerance (BFT):
Consensus mechanism.
Byzantine Generals’ Problem:
Trust issue in distributed consensus.
Byzantium Fork:
Ethereum upgrade for commercial use.


A programming language.
An extension of C.
Call Options:
Financial contracts granting buying rights.
Price change visualization.
Investment funds.
Capital Efficiencies:
Optimal spending and revenue balance.
Capital Funds:
Investment capital.
Selling at a loss due to despair.
Casascius Coin:
Physical Bitcoin unit.
Cascading Liquidations:
Sequential asset sell-offs.
Physical currency.
Token standard for Bitcoin Cash.
Casper (Ethereum):
Ethereum PoS implementation.
Cathie Wood:
ARK Invest founder.
Combination of centralized and decentralized finance.
Suppression of information.
Censorship Resistance:
Freedom from control.
Central Bank:
Monetary policy authority.
Central Bank Digital Currency (CBDC):
Government-issued digital currency.
Central Ledger:
Main transaction record.
Central Processing Unit (CPU):
Computer processing unit.
Single control point.
Centralized Exchange (CEX):
Tradable asset platform.
Centre (Consortium):
USDC manager.
Certificate of Deposit (CD):
Interest-bearing deposit.
Chain Reorganization:
Blockchain restructuring.
Chain Split:
Cryptocurrency fork.
Transaction remainder.
Change Address:
Transaction change storage.
Changpeng Zhao (CZ):
Binance founder.
Transaction refund.
Chicago Mercantile Exchange (CME):
Futures exchange.
Chunk (NEAR):
NEAR protocol data unit.
Encryption algorithm.
Encrypted data.
USDC provider.
Circulating Supply:
Available coin count.
Blockchain software user.
Closing price.
Distributed computing.
Cloud Mining:
Remote cryptocurrency mining.
Shared wallet controller.
Programming instructions.
Code Repository:
Code storage platform.
Cryptocurrency unit.
Coin Mixer:
Transaction obfuscator.
Coin-Margined Trading:
Trading based on cryptocurrency values.
Initial block reward.
Coinbase Transaction:
First block transaction.
Cold Storage:
Offline cryptocurrency storage.
Cold Wallet:
Offline wallet.
Collaborative Venture Building (CVB):
Joint project development.
Loan security.
Collateral Cap:
Risk diversification measure.
Collateral Factor:
Borrowing limit.
Collateral Margin:
Investor contribution ratio.
Collateral Tokens:
Loan collateral types.
Asset-backed lending.
Collateralized Debt Obligation:
Debt package sold to investors.
Collateralized Debt Position (CDP):
Loan backed by collateral.
Collateralized Mortgage Obligation:
Mortgage package sold to investors.
Collateralized Stablecoin
A "collateralized stablecoin" remains a stablecoin primarily backed by collateral held in reserve.
Commingling of funds consolidates investments from various sources into a single pool, maximizing potential benefits.
Commodity Futures Trading Commission (CFTC)
The Commodity Futures Trading Commission (CFTC) functions as an independent federal regulatory authority overseeing the U.S. derivatives market.
COMP Token
COMP serves as the native asset of the Compound protocol.
Composability (DeFi)
Composability within DeFi allows developers to amalgamate disparate blockchain components, fostering the creation of novel applications and services.
Composable DeFi
Composable DeFi highlights the interoperability among different DeFi protocols, fostering a wide array of innovative financial products and applications.
Composable Token
A composable token, exemplified by ERC-998, extends the functionality of non-fungible tokens (NFTs) to hold other NFTs and fungible tokens (ERC-20).
Concentrated Liquidity
Concentrated liquidity significantly enhances capital efficiency for liquidity providers (LPs), enabling diverse liquidity provision strategies.
In cryptocurrency, a confirmation measures the number of blocks added to the blockchain since a transaction's inclusion.
A cryptocurrency transaction achieves confirmation upon inclusion in a blockchain block, with subsequent blocks adding further confirmation.
Consensus is attained when all network participants agree on the order and content of blockchain blocks.
Consensus Layer
The consensus layer serves as the foundational framework of any blockchain network, facilitating agreement among nodes regarding the blockchain's true state.
Consensus Mechanism
A consensus mechanism forms the underlying infrastructure of all blockchain technologies, essential for the operation of cryptocurrencies.
ConsenSys operates as a blockchain technology firm, providing developer tools and enterprise solutions.
Consolidation in trading occurs when a cryptocurrency moves within a defined range, reflecting market uncertainty regarding its next direction.
Consortium Blockchain
A consortium blockchain, privately owned and operated, enables a group to share confidential information securely, leveraging the immutable and transparent nature of blockchain technology.
Consumer Price Index (CPI)
The Consumer Price Index (CPI) monitors the prices of a basket of goods and services to provide insights into market segments.
In traditional finance, a contract represents a binding agreement between two parties, while in cryptocurrencies, smart contracts execute functions on the blockchain.
Contract Account
A contract account holds cryptocurrency balances and associated code, facilitating various blockchain operations.
Contract for Difference (CFD)
A contract for difference (CFD) obliges a buyer to pay any price difference resulting from fluctuations in asset valuation.
A coordinator in blockchain technology serves as a specialized client enabling nodes to validate the accuracy of their ledger against specific transactions.
Core Wallet
A core cryptocurrency wallet encompasses the entire blockchain, offering comprehensive network participation capabilities.
Corporate Treasury
A corporate treasury manages and oversees a company's liquidity, risk, funds, capital reserves, and other resources in alignment with its short and long-term strategies.
A correction denotes a price retracement of at least 10% to rectify overvaluation.
Counter-Terrorism Financing
Counter-terrorism financing aims to disrupt and halt the flow of funds utilized to support terrorist organizations and activities.
CPU Miner
CPU mining involves utilizing a central processing unit (CPU) to generate or mine cryptocurrency, leveraging computing power.
Craig Wright
Craig Wright, an Australian computer scientist, maintains association with Bitcoin SV.
Credit Rating
Credit rating enables banks and lending institutions to assess an individual's ability to repay debt.
Credit Risk
Credit risk quantifies the likelihood of a bank or lending institution incurring losses due to loan defaults.
Cross Margin
Cross Margin, also referred to as "Spread Margin," utilizes the entirety of available funds to prevent liquidations, with realized profit and loss from other positions aiding in bolstering margin levels.
Cross-Border Trading
Cross-border trading allows for global trade using local currencies in financial markets and trade finance.
Cross-chain technology enhances interconnectivity between blockchain networks, facilitating the seamless exchange of information and value.
Cross-Chain Communication
Cross-chain communication enables different blockchain protocols to validate data and transactions autonomously, eliminating the need for centralized third-party intervention.
Cross-Chain Contract Calls
Cross-chain contract calls permit the transfer of information, cryptocurrencies, or NFTs between blockchains via smart contracts, overcoming network constraints.
Crowdfunding empowers fundraisers to gather capital from numerous individuals across various platforms.
Crowdloan involves new projects raising funds through DOT or KSM tokens for slots on the Kusama or Polkadot networks.
Crypto Debit Card
A crypto debit card facilitates transactions using cryptocurrencies to pay for goods and services.
Crypto Invoicing
Crypto invoicing involves generating invoices for products or services payable in cryptocurrencies.
Crypto Loan
A crypto loan entails securing financing by pledging cryptocurrency assets as collateral, similar to traditional secured loans.
Crypto Winter
Crypto winter denotes a period in the cryptocurrency market characterized by significant price declines from historical highs.
A cryptoasset encompasses any digital asset utilizing cryptographic technology for currency or decentralized application operations.
Cryptocurrencies are digital currencies secured by cryptographic technology and operate independently of central authorities.
Cryptocurrency Money Laundering
Cryptocurrency money laundering involves concealing and legitimizing illicit funds by converting fiat currency into digital assets and routing them through various pathways to evade detection.
Cryptocurrency Pairs
Cryptocurrency pairs facilitate trading between different tokens on exchanges.
Cryptographic Hash Function
Cryptographic hash functions generate fixed-size hash values from variable-size transaction inputs, ensuring data integrity and security.
Cryptography secures information to prevent unauthorized access, encompassing the study and practice of safeguarding sensitive data.
Cryptojacking involves unauthorized cryptocurrency mining using another party's computer resources without their consent.
Cryptology encompasses the scientific study of cryptography and cryptanalysis.
CryptoPunks constitute a collection of Ethereum-based non-fungible tokens (NFTs), each unique in its attributes and characteristics.
Currency serves as a medium of exchange defining value in economic transactions.
Currency Crisis
A currency crisis emerges as a financial emergency when a nation's fiat currency depreciates in value, prompting investors to exercise caution regarding asset retention and investment within that country.
Curve AMO
Curve functions as software utilizing multiple cryptocurrencies to operate an automated market maker (AMM) service, predominantly focusing on stablecoins programmed to mirror other assets.
Custodial cryptocurrency businesses maintain possession of customers' funds throughout the duration of their service usage.
A custodian assumes responsibility for safely holding assets on behalf of individuals or institutions, serving various purposes.
Custody refers to a financial institution's legal authority to safeguard and preserve clients' financial assets, preventing asset theft or loss.
Cypherpunks advocate for the advancement of social and political progress through the utilization of cryptography and other privacy-centric technologies.


Daedalus Wallet
Daedalus Wallet represents a multi-platform, open-source, hierarchical-deterministic wallet facilitating the generation of an infinite number of keys from a single seed.
DAO Summoning
DAO summoning involves the creation or formation of a DAO, typically referenced in the context of establishing a new Moloch DAO or any other DAO.
Dark Web
The dark web comprises portions of the internet existing on darknets, inaccessible via conventional search engines, accessible solely through specific software, configurations, or authorizations.
RenVM relies on Darknodes, constituting a decentralized network of computers contributing computing power and storage space in exchange for compensation under specific conditions.
Data Privacy
Data privacy pertains to the protection and security of sensitive data, encompassing measures to safeguard against unauthorized access or disclosure.
Data Scraping
Data scraping, or web scraping, entails extracting information from websites into spreadsheets, local files, or databases.
Data Validation
Data validation ensures the accuracy, integrity, and quality of data before its utilization, verifying its suitability for intended purposes.
Date of Launch
The date of launch denotes the commencement of token sales during Initial Coin Offerings (ICOs).
Day Trading
Day trading entails the frequent buying and selling of assets to capitalize on intraday price fluctuations.
Dead Cat Bounce
A dead cat bounce signifies a temporary price recovery following a prolonged decline in asset value.
Dead Coin
A dead coin refers to a cryptocurrency that has ceased to exist.
Death Cross
A death cross serves as a bearish technical trading indicator occurring when the 50-day moving average falls below the 200-day moving average, indicating a substantial sell-off.
Decentralization Maximalism
Decentralization maximalism espouses the belief that decentralization represents the optimal approach, advocating for minimal regulatory intervention.
Decentralization Ratio
The Decentralization Ratio (DR) gauges the proportion of decentralized collateral value relative to the total stablecoin supply backed by those assets.
Decentralization characterizes a system in which nodes or participants collaborate in a distributed manner to achieve common objectives, devoid of centralized control.
Decentralized API (dAPI)
Decentralized application programming interfaces (dAPIs) offer API services intrinsically interoperable with blockchain technology, exemplified by the API3 protocol.
Decentralized Applications (DApps)
DApps operate on decentralized networks, avoiding single points of failure and promoting resilience.
Decentralized Autonomous Initial Coin Offerings (DAICO)
DAICOs introduce a governance mechanism into the ICO process, enabling backers to vote for the return of funds under specific conditions.
Decentralized Autonomous Organizations (DAO)
DAOs operate based on predetermined rules and blockchain-based smart contracts, facilitating decentralized governance and decision-making.
Decentralized Currency
Decentralized currency enables bank-free wealth transfer or ownership exchange without intermediary intervention.
Decentralized Database
Decentralized databases distribute data and files randomly across multiple nodes, ensuring high security, availability, and censorship resistance.
Decentralized Exchange (DEX)
A decentralized exchange (DEX) enables users to trade cryptocurrencies directly with each other without the involvement of intermediaries.
Decentralized Governance
Decentralized governance involves the equitable management of a platform through disintermediated procedures, typically employed within blockchain networks and decentralized applications (dApps).
Decentralized Identifier (DID)
A decentralized identifier (DID) serves as a unique identity issued by autonomous, decentralized platforms, providing proof of digital identity ownership.
Decentralized Marketplace
Built on blockchain technology, a decentralized marketplace facilitates peer-to-peer trading while eliminating the need for intermediaries, enabling global accessibility and direct transactions.
Decentralized Network
A decentralized network comprises interconnected elements interacting without centralized control or reliance on a single server.
Decentralized Order Book
In a decentralized order book, buy and sell orders are matched through a distributed network of nodes rather than being centralized, ensuring transparency and decentralization.
Decentralized Payment Network
A decentralized payment network enables users, customers, and vendors to exchange money without relying on third parties for network security and operation.
Decentralized Social Media
Decentralized social media platforms operate on blockchain technology, offering enhanced privacy and autonomy to users.
Decentralized Stablecoin
Decentralized stablecoins are transparent and non-custodial, often devoid of third-party control, providing stability through blockchain-based mechanisms.
Decryption is the process of converting encrypted data into a readable format for users or machines.
Deep Web
The deep web constitutes internet content not indexed by standard search engines, often comprising sensitive or private information.
DeFi, short for decentralized finance, advocates for alternative financial services outside traditional centralized systems.
DeFi Aggregator
A DeFi aggregator consolidates trades across various decentralized finance platforms into a unified interface.
DeFi Degens
DeFi degens, or degenerates, are associated with a segment of decentralized finance known for speculative and risky investment strategies.
Deflation signifies a decrease in the general price level of goods and services within an economy.
Delayed Proof of Work (dPoW)
Delayed Proof of Work (dPoW) serves as a secondary consensus security mechanism safeguarding blockchains from 51% attacks.
Delegated Proof-of-Stake (dPOS)
Delegated Proof-of-Stake (dPOS) represents an alternative consensus algorithm to Proof-of-Stake (PoS) and Proof-of-Work (PoW).
Delisting refers to the removal of an asset, stock, or cryptocurrency from a trading exchange.
Demurrage is a fee charged for holding an asset beyond a specified time period.
Denial-of-Service (DoS) Attack
A denial-of-service attack aims to disrupt the availability of a computer or network service to its intended users.
Depth Chart
A depth chart displays buy and sell orders plotted on a chart based on limit orders, indicating market acceptance points for transactions.
A derivative derives its value from an underlying asset, serving as a financial instrument.
Derivatives Market
The derivatives market encompasses instruments like futures contracts or options derived from cryptocurrency assets.
Desktop Wallet
A desktop wallet is software for storing cryptocurrencies, typically non-custodial and installed on a computer.
Deterministic Wallet
A deterministic wallet generates keys and addresses from a single seed, enhancing security and ease of use.
Dex Aggregator
Dex aggregators merge various blockchain-based services, offering cryptocurrency traders improved liquidity and pricing across multiple pairs.
Dharma Protocol
Dharma Protocol represents an open-source infrastructure for building debt markets on Ethereum.
Diamond Hands
Diamond hands refer to investors who hold onto their assets despite market downturns.
Difficulty measures the complexity of validating new blocks on a blockchain.
Digital technologies encompass electronic tools capable of generating, storing, or processing data.
Digital Art
Digital art encompasses artistic creations made using digital technology.
Digital Asset
A digital asset denotes a digital representation of something valuable.
Digital Asset Custodian
A digital asset custodian safeguards digital assets on behalf of clients or investors.
Digital Asset Ecosystem
The digital asset ecosystem encompasses all facets of the cryptocurrency space, including NFTs, futures, and related facilities.
Digital Barter Economy
The digital barter economy simplifies global trading of physical and virtual items using digital platforms.
Digital Commodity
A digital commodity exists solely in digital form, distinct from physical commodities.
Digital Currency
Digital currency operates exclusively in digital form, contrasting with traditional physical currencies.
Digital Dollar
The digital dollar concept refers to a potential digital currency issued by the US central bank (CBDC).
Digital Identity
Digital identity comprises information used to identify individuals or entities within a computer or network.
Digital Signature
A digital signature verifies the authenticity of digital communications.
Digital Signature Algorithm (DSA)
DSA employs public-key cryptography to generate digital signatures, distinct from encryption algorithms.
In crypto jargon, a dildo refers to the colored "candles" on market graphs, representing price movements.
A dip denotes a temporary downturn in market prices.
Directed Acyclic Graph (DAG)
A DAG structures data without cycles, often utilized in data modeling and as a consensus tool in cryptocurrencies.
Discord serves as a web-based communication platform, initially designed for gamers but now widely used across various communities.
Distributed Consensus
Distributed consensus represents collective agreement among network nodes.
Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) Attack
A DDoS attack aims to disrupt an application, server, or network by overwhelming it with traffic.
Distributed Ledger
Distributed ledgers store data across decentralized nodes, often without involving cryptocurrencies.
Distributed Ledger Technology (DLT)
DLT refers to databases shared across multiple participants, forming the basis for blockchain technology.
Distributed Network
A distributed network relies on multiple sources for data and application hosting, rather than a centralized location.
Distribution Phase
The distribution phase follows an extended uptrend, characterized by sideways market movement and range-bound prices.
Diversification involves spreading investments across various assets to manage risk.
Diversified Proof of Stake
Diversified Proof of Stake allows multiple assets to be staked on a single blockchain, enhancing flexibility.
Documentation stores asset details within token economies on the blockchain.
A dolphin holds a moderate amount of cryptocurrency.
Dominance measures Bitcoin's value relative to the broader cryptocurrency market.
Dorian Nakamoto
Dorian Nakamoto is associated with Satoshi Nakamoto, the pseudonymous creator of Bitcoin.
DotSama refers to the Kusama and Polkadot ecosystems collectively.
Double Spend Attack
A double spend attack involves spending the same cryptocurrency more than once.
Double Spending
Double spending refers to the potential to spend a digital currency multiple times.
Dust Transactions
Dust transactions involve minuscule amounts of cryptocurrency in a wallet.
Dusting Attack
A dusting attack aims to uncover the owner's identity by sending small amounts of cryptocurrency to their wallet.
DYCO (Dynamic Coin Offering)
DYCO employs utility tokens backed by USD, offering a new crowdfunding model.
DoYour Own Research, encourages investors to conduct thorough research before investing in a project.


An e-signature serves as a digital substitute for a physical signature in document signing.
Economic Utility
Economic utility represents the satisfaction derived from consuming goods or services.
Edge Nodes
Edge nodes serve as gateways connecting end-users to other network nodes.
Effective Proof-of-Stake
Effective Proof-of-Stake balances security and decentralization within Harmony's consensus mechanism.
EIP-1559 simplifies Ethereum's fee market mechanism, enhancing user experience.
Electrum Wallet
An Electrum wallet provides a simple interface for storing Bitcoin across multiple operating systems.
ELI5 requests simplified explanations for complex crypto concepts.
Elliott Waves
Elliott Wave Theory guides many traders in analyzing stock and crypto market trends.
EMA (Exponential Moving Average)
EMA tracks recent price changes while retaining older data points, aiding in asset analysis.
Email Spoofing
Email spoofing tricks users into believing messages originate from a different source.
Emission refers to the rate of new coin production and release.
Encryption encodes information to prevent unauthorized access.
Enterprise Blockchain
Enterprise blockchain applies distributed ledger technology for business purposes.
Enterprise Ethereum Alliance (EEA)
EEA fosters Ethereum network development through collaboration among organizations.
An epoch represents a complete cycle of training data in machine learning.
Equity constitutes shareholder funds in a company after debt repayment in liquidation.
Erasure Coding
Erasure coding segments and encodes data for storage across multiple locations.
ERC 7512
ERC-7512 standardizes audit report representation on Ethereum's blockchain.
ERC-1155 enables secure creation of fungible and non-fungible assets on Ethereum.
ERC-20 tokens are built and utilized exclusively on the Ethereum platform.
ERC-223 tokens enable secure token transfers to digital wallets via smart contracts.
ERC-721 standardizes non-fungible Ethereum tokens.
ERC-777 offers a new way to engage with token contracts while remaining backward compatible.
ERC-827 addresses limitations of ERC-20 regarding calls in transfers and approvals.
ERC-884 facilitates tradable ERC-20 tokens representing shares issued by corporations.
ERC-948 connects subscription businesses with customers via subscription-based transactions.
Escrow holds assets or cash during a transaction until completion.
Esports involve competitive digital gaming, often offering substantial monetary rewards.
ETH/BTC is a popular trading pair reflecting Ethereum's price in Bitcoin.
Ethash is Ethereum's proof-of-work mining algorithm.
Ether serves as the native cryptocurrency of the Ethereum platform.
Ethereum Difficulty
Ethereum difficulty ensures network stability and security, especially during its transition to Proof-of-Stake.
Ethereum Improvement Proposal (EIP)
EIPs propose enhancements to the Ethereum network.
Ethereum Request For Comment (ERC)
ERCs introduce new improvements to Ethereum's network.
Ethereum Transaction
Ethereum transactions update the state of Ethereum's network.
Ethereum Virtual Machine (EVM)
EVM executes code on Ethereum, serving as a runtime environment for smart contracts.
Event Triggers
Smart contracts emit events upon transaction execution, facilitating frontend processing.
Exchanges enable cryptocurrency trading between fiat money and cryptocurrencies.
Exchange Traded Fund (ETF)
ETFs track baskets of assets and trade like individual stocks.
Exit Scam
An exit scam occurs when projects vanish after amassing investors' funds.


A fakeout occurs when there is a sudden and temporary move in a market that tricks traders into believing that a new trend is emerging, when in reality, it is not.
Falling Knife
A falling knife refers to a rapid and steep decline in the price of an asset, indicating a strong downward momentum in the financial market.
Falling Wedge
Falling wedges, also known as descending wedges, are chart patterns characterized by a distinct downward slope and a bullish bias. They are often compared to symmetrical triangles, which lack a discernible slope and bias.
Fan Token
A fan token is a type of cryptocurrency issued by a specific sports team, granting holders the ability to participate in governance activities and receive exclusive rewards and discounts.
FATF Travel Rule
The FATF Travel Rule mandates virtual asset service providers to regulate information sharing for certain large transactions in order to combat money laundering and terrorist financing.
A faucet is a cryptocurrency reward system, usually found on websites or apps, that rewards users for completing specific tasks.
Fee Tiers
Fee tiers refer to the fee structure that determines the amount charged when investors deposit or withdraw money and execute trades on a crypto exchange.
Fiat currency is government-issued currency that is not backed by a physical commodity, such as gold or silver. It holds value because a government declares it to be legal tender.
Fiat On-Ramp
A fiat on-ramp is a method used to convert fiat currency, such as USD or EUR, into cryptocurrencies.
Fiat-Pegged Cryptocurrency
A fiat-pegged cryptocurrency is a digital asset whose value is directly linked to a government-issued currency, such as the US dollar or the euro.
Fibonacci Retracement Level
Fibonacci retracement levels are horizontal lines that indicate potential support and resistance levels based on Fibonacci ratios. They are used to identify areas of price reversal in financial markets.
Field Programmable Gate Array
A field-programmable gate array (FPGA) is an integrated circuit that can be configured after manufacturing. It is often used in cryptocurrency mining hardware.
Financial Action Task Force (FATF)
The FATF is an intergovernmental organization that sets global standards to combat money laundering, terrorist financing, and other financial crimes.
Financial Crime Enforcement Network (FinCEN)
FinCEN is a bureau of the United States Department of the Treasury responsible for combating money laundering and other financial crimes.
Financial Transactions and Reports Analysis Centre (FINTRAC)
FINTRAC is Canada's financial intelligence unit responsible for collecting, analyzing, and disseminating financial intelligence to combat money laundering, terrorist financing, and other threats to the security of Canada.
First In, First Out (FIFO)
First In, First Out (FIFO) is an inventory method used to determine the cost basis of assets sold, where the oldest inventory items are sold first.
First-Mover Advantage (FMA)
The first-mover advantage refers to the competitive advantage gained by a company that introduces a new product or service to the market before its competitors.
In cryptocurrency slang, a fish refers to someone who has a small amount of cryptocurrency holdings.
Flash Crash
A flash crash is a sudden and severe drop in the price of an asset or market within a very short period of time, often caused by a large sell-off or market manipulation.
Flash Loan
A flash loan is a type of uncollateralized loan that is borrowed and repaid within the same transaction or block on a blockchain.
Flash Loan Attack
A flash loan attack occurs when a malicious actor exploits vulnerabilities in a smart contract to manipulate prices or steal funds using flash loans.
Flash Loans
Flash loans are uncollateralized loans that are borrowed and repaid within the same transaction or block on a blockchain, typically used for arbitrage or other trading strategies in decentralized finance (DeFi).
Flashbots is an independent research and development organization focused on mitigating the negative impact of MEV (Maximal Extractable Value) extraction in Ethereum and other blockchain ecosystems.
A flatcoin is a cryptocurrency whose value is pegged to the cost of living, rather than to a fiat currency or commodity.
The flippening is a hypothetical scenario in which the market capitalization of Ethereum surpasses that of Bitcoin, making Ethereum the dominant cryptocurrency.
Flipping is an investment strategy in which an investor buys an asset with the intention of selling it for a profit shortly afterward.
FOMO stands for "Fear of Missing Out" and refers to the feeling of anxiety or apprehension that an individual may experience when they believe others are experiencing a rewarding opportunity from which they are excluded.
Fork (Blockchain)
A fork in a blockchain occurs when the underlying rules of the protocol are changed, resulting in two separate versions of the blockchain running concurrently.
Fork (Software)
A fork in software development occurs when a new project is created by copying source code from an existing project and developing it independently.
Fork Choice Rule
The fork choice rule is a mechanism used in blockchain networks to determine which chain is considered the canonical chain in the event of a fork.
Fractional Stablecoins
Fractional stablecoins are cryptocurrencies that are backed by a combination of collateral and algorithmic mechanisms to maintain price stability.
Fraud Proof
Fraud proofs are cryptographic techniques used to provide evidence of fraudulent behavior in decentralized environments, particularly in optimistic rollup solutions for scaling blockchains.
Front Running
Front running occurs when a trader or entity places a trade ahead of a large order they anticipate will move the market, allowing them to profit from the subsequent price movement.
FUD stands for "Fear, Uncertainty, and Doubt" and refers to the spreading of negative or misleading information to create fear and uncertainty in the market.
A FUDster is someone who spreads fear, uncertainty, and doubt in the market by disseminating negative or misleading information.
Full Node
A full node is a participant in a blockchain network that stores and verifies the entire history of the blockchain, ensuring the network's security and integrity.
Fully Diluted Value (FDV)
The fully diluted value (FDV) of a cryptocurrency is the total market capitalization of the asset if all tokens or coins were in circulation.
Fully Homomorphic Encryption
Fully homomorphic encryption is a form of encryption that allows computation on encrypted data without decrypting it, preserving privacy and security.
Fundamental Analysis (FA)
Fundamental analysis is a method used to evaluate the intrinsic value of an asset by analyzing economic, financial, and qualitative factors that affect its value.
Funding Payments
Funding payments are periodic payments exchanged between traders in perpetual futures contracts to maintain the contract's price in line with the spot market.
Fungibility refers to the interchangeability of units of a currency or asset, where each unit is identical and can be exchanged on a one-to-one basis.
Fusion Rollups
Fusion rollups are a scaling solution for blockchains that combine the benefits of other layer 2 approaches, such as appchains and shared rollups, to increase throughput and efficiency.
Futo is an organization dedicated to the development and investment in decentralized technologies and companies.
Futures contracts are standardized agreements to buy or sell a specific asset at a predetermined price at a specified future date, providing investors with exposure to price movements without owning the underlying asset.


Gains refer to increases in the value or profit of an investment or asset.
Game Channels
Game channels are a technological advancement in blockchain gaming that enables fast gameplay by allowing games and decentralized applications (dApps) to run off-chain securely and in near real-time.
Game Theory
Game theory is a branch of mathematics and economics that studies strategic interactions between rational decision-makers, often applied to model human behavior in competitive situations.
GameFi, or play-to-earn games, are games that integrate blockchain and cryptocurrency features, allowing players to earn rewards and exert control over in-game assets.
Gas is a unit of measurement used to quantify the computational effort required to execute operations on the Ethereum blockchain, such as transactions and smart contracts.
Gas Limit
The gas limit is the maximum amount of gas that a user is willing to spend on a transaction in the Ethereum network.
Gas Price
The gas price is the amount of cryptocurrency a user is willing to pay per unit of gas to execute a transaction or smart contract on the Ethereum network.
Gas Station Networks (GSN)
Gas Station Networks (GSN) enable decentralized applications (dApps) to facilitate gasless transactions for users by providing payment for transaction fees.
Gavin Wood
Gavin Wood is a co-founder of Parity Technologies and one of the co-founders of the Ethereum blockchain.
In cryptocurrency slang, gems refer to relatively unknown low-cap coins that are believed to have significant potential for growth or are considered undervalued by the market.
Genesis Block
The genesis block is the first block of data in a blockchain, serving as the foundation from which all subsequent blocks are linked.
Geotagged NFT
Geotagged non-fungible tokens (NFTs) are digital tokens that represent ownership of virtual or physical assets, such as artwork or collectibles, and are linked to specific geographic locations.
Geth, short for Go Ethereum, is a command-line interface for running Ethereum nodes, mining cryptocurrency, and executing smart contracts.
GitHub is a web-based platform used by developers to host and review code, manage projects, and collaborate on software development.
Goguen Phase
The Goguen phase is a development phase of the Cardano blockchain that focuses on enabling the creation of smart contracts and decentralized applications (DApps).
Gold-Backed Cryptocurrency
Gold-backed cryptocurrencies are digital assets that are backed by physical gold reserves, providing holders with the ability to invest in gold through blockchain technology.
Golden Cross
A golden cross is a bullish technical trading signal that occurs when a short-term moving average crosses above a long-term moving average, indicating a potential upward trend in the price of an asset.
Google Authenticator
Google Authenticator is a software-based authentication tool that generates one-time verification codes for two-factor authentication on mobile devices.
Governance refers to the processes and mechanisms by which decisions are made and implemented within a decentralized ecosystem, such as a blockchain network or cryptocurrency project.
Governance Token
A governance token is a digital asset that grants holders the ability to participate in decision-making processes and vote on proposals within a decentralized ecosystem.
GPG Encryption
GNU Privacy Guard (GPG) encryption is an open-source implementation of the OpenPGP standard used for encrypting and decrypting data securely.
Graphical Processing Unit (GPU)
A graphical processing unit (GPU) is a specialized electronic circuit designed to rapidly render images for display on a computer monitor, but is also commonly used for cryptocurrency mining due to its high computational power.
Gray Swan Event
A gray swan event is a significant and potentially impactful event that is foreseeable to some extent, but is considered unlikely to occur.
Greater Fool Theory
The greater fool theory is an economic theory that suggests the price of an asset is determined not by its intrinsic value, but rather by the belief that there will always be someone willing to pay a higher price for it.
Green Candle
A green candle is a visual representation on a price chart that indicates an increase in the price of an asset during a specific time period, typically signaling bullish sentiment in the market.
Group Mining
Group mining, also known as pool mining, is a method of cryptocurrency mining in which multiple miners combine their computational resources to increase the likelihood of successfully mining blocks and receiving rewards.
Gwei is a denomination used to measure the cost of gas in transactions on the Ethereum blockchain, with one gwei being equal to one billionth of an ether.


Hacking involves using a computer to manipulate another computer or computer system in an unauthorized manner.
Hal Finney
Hal Finney, a cryptographer and programmer, played a pioneering role in the development of Bitcoin and collaborated with Satoshi Nakamoto.
Hard Cap
A hard cap represents the absolute maximum supply of a digital asset.
Hard Fork (Blockchain)
A hard fork is a protocol change that validates previously invalid transactions while invalidating previously valid transactions.
Hard Fork Combinator
A hard fork combinator, originally designed by IOHK, is a tool for combining protocols specifically on the Cardano blockchain after a hard fork.
Hard Peg
A hard peg is an exchange rate policy where a currency is fixed at a set rate against another currency.
Hardware Security Module
A hardware security module is a computing device that secures digital keys and encrypts data.
Hardware Wallet
A hardware wallet is a cryptocurrency wallet that typically resembles a USB stick.
A hash is the output of a hashing algorithm, creating a unique, fixed-length string to encrypt and secure a selection of arbitrary data.
Hash Function
A hash function is used to map data of arbitrary size to data of a fixed size, often for encryption purposes.
Hash Power / Hash Rate
Hash power or hash rate is a unit of measurement for the amount of computing power consumed by a network to operate continuously.
Hashed Timelock Contract (HTLC)
A hashed timelock contract (HTLC) is an agreement between parties that requires no trust, offering special features to reduce risk.
Hashgraph Consensus Mechanism
The hashgraph consensus is an advanced version of technology enabling consensus mechanisms.
Haskell Programming Language
Haskell is a standardized, general-purpose, statically-typed, purely functional programming language developed in 1990.
Hedge Contract
A hedge contract is a form of insurance used by investors to hedge against financial loss risk, protecting against market price fluctuations.
Hedge Fund
A hedge fund is a pooled investment fund employing various investment strategies across liquid asset classes.
Hidden Cap
Hidden cap is an undisclosed limit to the funds a team chooses to receive from investors in its initial coin offering (ICO), leveling the playing field for all investors.
Hierarchical Deterministic Wallet (HD Wallet)
An HD wallet generates crypto-wallets from a single master seed using 12 mnemonic phrases.
Higher High
A higher high occurs when the price of a cryptocurrency closes higher than the previous day's high.
Higher Low
A higher low is when the price of a cryptocurrency closes at a level higher than the close of the previous day.
HODL is a passive investment strategy where an investment is held long term, regardless of market changes, originally stemming from a typo in a Bitcoin forum.
Honeyminer is a cryptocurrency mining application available for download on multiple devices.
A honeypot is a scam in the crypto industry to trap victims and steal assets or sensitive information.
Hostage Byte Attack
A Hostage Byte Attack is a distributed denial of service (DDoS) attack against a user who stored data on a malicious storage node and is asked to pay ransom for data retrieval.
Hosted Wallet
A hosted wallet is managed by a third-party service.
Hot Storage
Hot storage refers to online storage of private keys allowing quick access to cryptocurrencies.
Hot Wallet
A hot wallet is a cryptocurrency wallet connected to the internet for the hot storage of cryptoassets.
Howey Test
The Howey Test determines whether an asset qualifies as a security.
Human-Readable Names
Human-readable refers to information readable naturally by humans, as opposed to machine-readable formats like binary.
Huobi BTC (HBTC)
HBTC, launched by Huobi, is a standard ERC-20 token pegged to BTC on a 1:1 ratio.
Hybrid PoW/PoS
A hybrid PoW/PoS combines proof-of-work and proof-of-stake consensus algorithms for network distribution.
Hydra (Cardano)
Hydra is a layer-two scaling solution for the Cardano blockchain, aiming to increase transaction processing capacity by allowing multiple channels.
Hyperinflation is an unrestricted increase in prices for goods and services due to limited resources, leading to demand outstripping supply.
Hyperledger (Hyperledger Foundation)
Hyperledger is an open-source blockchain project started by the Linux Foundation in 2015 to develop blockchain-based distributed ledgers collaboratively.


Immutable means unable to be changed, especially over time.
Impermanent Loss
Impermanent loss occurs when a liquidity provider experiences temporary loss due to volatility in a trading pair.
In-the-Money / Out-of-the-Money
In-the-money and out-of-the-money are options trading mechanisms providing investors tools to work with the market.
Infinite Approval
Infinite approval pre-approves smart contracts to allow spending any amount of coins.
Infinite Mint Attack
An infinite mint attack occurs when an unwanted entity or hacker mints an absurd amount of tokens within a protocol.
Inflation is a general increase in prices, resulting in the decreased purchasing power of money.
Initial Bounty Offering (IBO)
An IBO is a project launch focusing on contributors offering skills rather than money.
Initial Coin Offering (ICO)
An ICO is a crowdfunding method using cryptocurrencies to raise capital for early-stage companies.
Initial Dex Offering (IDO)
An IDO is an alternative to an ICO.
Initial Exchange Offering
An initial exchange offering is a crowdfunding method where crypto start-ups generate capital by listing through an exchange.
Initial Farm Offering (IFO)
An IFO helps DeFi projects raise capital through decentralized exchanges' farming feature.
Initial Game Offering (IGO)
An IGO provides individuals an opportunity to invest in gaming projects at an early stage.
Initial NFT Offering (INO)
An INO is a crypto crowdfunding solution where projects raise funds by listing NFTs via a launchpad.
Initial Public Offering (IPO)
An IPO is a process where a company offers shares for purchase on the stock market for the first time.
Initial Stake Pool Offering (ISPO)
An ISPO is a crypto fundraising method exclusive to the Cardano ecosystem.
Initial Token Offering (ITO)
An ITO focuses on offering tokens with intrinsic utility in an ecosystem.
Input-Output Hong Kong (IOHK)
IOHK, now Input-Output Global, provides blockchain infrastructure to research and engineering companies.
Insider Trading
Insider trading involves trading stocks while possessing private, material information about them.
Instamine occurs when a large portion of a coin’s total supply is distributed to investors shortly after launch.
Instant Settlement Network Layer
Instant settlement networks allow real-time exchange of digital assets globally.
Institutional Investor
An institutional investor trades in the market on behalf of clients who may be retail investors.
Insurance Fund
An exchange insurance fund covers unexpected losses from leveraged trading, preventing trader bankruptcy.
Integrated Development Environment (IDE)
An IDE merges development tools into a single GUI to develop applications.
Intellectual Property (IP)
Intellectual property includes intangible creations protected from copying or selling, such as software or designs.
Inter-Blockchain Communication (IBC)
IBC is a protocol allowing different blockchains to relay messages to each other.
Intercontinental Exchange (ICE)
ICE operates global exchanges and clearing houses.
Interest Rates
Interest rates are charges or returns proportional to deposited, borrowed, or lent money over time.
A middleman facilitates agreements or directives between different parties.
Internal Transaction
An internal transaction, or "message," results from an EOA interaction with a contract address, transferring Ether.
Internet Layer
The internet layer transports network packets in the TCP/IP model.
Internet Memes
Internet memes are images, videos, or text spread rapidly by internet users.
Internet of Things
IoT is a network of interconnected devices, sensors, and software exchanging real-time data over the internet.
Internet Service Provider (ISP)
ISPs provide end-users with internet access.
Blockchain interoperability allows sharing information across multiple blockchains.
InterPlanetary File System (IPFS)
IPFS is a distributed system storing and accessing files, websites, and applications based on content addressing.
Intrinsic Value
Intrinsic value reflects an asset’s actual worth based on financial calculation rather than current price.
Investing involves putting money into a financial scheme to make a gain.
Investment Vehicles (Crypto-tied)
Investment vehicles are assets in which investors put money to increase their portfolio value.
An IOU states that one party owes a debt to another party.
IP Address
IP addresses are unique numeric addresses assigned to devices connected to the internet or a local network.
Isolated Margin
Isolated margin mode protects traders by limiting exposure to a single position in a market.


Jager is the smallest denomination of Binance Coin (BNB).
Java is a general-purpose, class-based, and object-oriented programming language.
JavaScript is a dynamic, lightweight programming language commonly used in web applications.
JOMO, or Joy of Missing Out, is the opposite of FOMO, representing satisfaction with not participating in something.


A keylogger, also known as keystroke logging software, serves as a spying tool frequently employed by hackers to record the keystrokes made by users.
Kimchi Premium
Kimchi premium denotes a phenomenon observed in South Korean crypto exchanges, resulting in valuations appearing higher than on other international exchanges.
Klinger Oscillator
The Klinger volume oscillator stands as a volume-based technical indicator, comparing volume to price to forecast price reversals in financial markets.
Know Your Customer (KYC)
Know Your Customer (KYC) entails checks conducted by crypto exchanges and trading platforms to verify the identity of their customers.


Lachesis serves as the consensus mechanism of the Fantom blockchain.
Lambo, a slang term, refers to the type of car that many crypto enthusiasts aspire to buy when their digital assets experience substantial value increases, or "moon."
Large Cap
Large cap, or big cap, projects or organizations are well-established entities with a market capitalization of $10 billion or above.
Laser Eyes
Laser eyes represent a viral Twitter meme used by Bitcoiners aiming to drive the price of BTC to new all-time highs.
Law of Accelerating Returns
The Law of Accelerating Returns, posited by Ray Kurzweil, hypothesizes that technologies progress exponentially.
Layer 0
Layer 0 constitutes a network framework underlying the blockchain, comprising protocols, connections, hardware, miners, and other foundational elements.
Layer 2
Layer 2 denotes a scaling solution enabling high transaction throughput while maintaining the security of the underlying blockchain.
Layer-1 Blockchain
A layer-1 blockchain encompasses solutions aimed at improving the base protocol itself.
Leased Proof of Stake (LPoS)
Leased Proof of Stake (LPoS) functions as a consensus mechanism allowing cryptocurrency holders to lease their coins to nodes on a network.
A ledger serves as a record of financial transactions that can only be appended with new transactions and cannot be altered.
Leverage refers to funds borrowed from a brokerage, enabling traders to gain greater exposure to a position than their capital allows.
Leveraged Tokens
Leveraged tokens provide traders with leveraged positions in trading, amplifying both earnings and losses in the world of cryptocurrencies.
Libp2p represents an open network protocol facilitating decentralized peer-to-peer networking.
Light Node
Light nodes, typically downloaded wallets, validate blockchain information by connecting to full nodes.
Lightning Network
The Lightning Network is a second-layer protocol designed to address Bitcoin's scalability issue by facilitating faster transaction processing.
Limit Order
A limit order is an order to buy or sell a security at a specified price or better.
LINK (Chainlink)
LINK is an Ethereum-based token used to pay Chainlink node operators.
Liquid Market
A liquid market features a large number of buyers and sellers, facilitating easy and low-cost trades.
Liquid Proof of Stake (LPoS)
Liquid Proof of Stake (LPoS) improves upon traditional Proof of Stake (PoS) by enabling users to stake assets without fully locking them up.
Liquid Staking
Liquid staking allows users to stake tokens while simultaneously using them in the DeFi ecosystem.
Liquid Staking (Fantom)
Liquid staking, a mechanism by the Fantom blockchain, enables users to earn yield by staking tokens for extended durations.
Liquid Staking Derivatives
Liquid Staking Derivatives (LSDs) are tokens representing staked assets in a DeFi protocol.
Liquidation involves converting an asset or cryptocurrency into fiat or its equivalents.
Liquidity measures how easily a cryptocurrency can be converted into cash without affecting its price.
Liquidity Bootstrapping Pool (LBP)
A liquidity bootstrapping pool manages a core pool containing tokens for use on an exchange.
Liquidity Mining
Liquidity mining involves participants supplying cryptocurrencies to liquidity pools and receiving rewards based on their share of the total pool liquidity.
Liquidity Pool
Liquidity pools hold crypto assets to facilitate trading on decentralized exchanges.
Liquidity Provider
Liquidity providers fund decentralized exchange liquidity pools with tokens they own.
Liquidity Provider Tokens (LP Tokens)
LP tokens are issued to liquidity providers on decentralized exchanges running on automated market maker protocols.
Liveness ensures that a system continues to provide data without the ability of any centralized authority to shut down its services.
LMD GHOST, also known as the GHOST Protocol, is a fork-choice rule enabling blockchain network nodes to agree on the valid state of the ledger.
Loan-to-value (LTV)
Loan-to-value (LTV) assesses the risk involved in approving a loan by comparing the loan's value to the value of the collateral.
Location Swap
Location swap permits the change of claim to assets manifested as tokens without affecting other attributes.
Long refers to buying a cryptocurrency with the expectation of selling it at a higher price later for profit.
Longing (Long Position)
A long position involves buying a cryptocurrency or financial instrument to sell it later at a higher price.
Lovelace represents the smallest denomination of ADA.
Lower High
A lower high occurs when the price of a cryptocurrency closes at a high lower than the previous day.
Lower Low
A lower low happens when the price of a cryptocurrency closes lower than the previous day's low.


The mainchain is the base blockchain layer where all transactions are processed and finalized.
A mainnet is an independent blockchain operating with its own network, technology, and protocol.
Mainnet Swap
Mainnet swap involves shifting a cryptocurrency project from one blockchain network to another, typically its native blockchain network.
Maker Protocol (MakerDAO)
The Maker Protocol allows users to collateralize assets approved by Maker governance to generate DAI.
Malware, or malicious software, comprises harmful programs used by bad actors to illegally access or compromise computers, networks, or servers.
Man-in-the-Middle Attack (MITM)
A man-in-the-middle attack occurs when a perpetrator intercepts and potentially alters communication between two parties.
Margin Call
A margin call occurs when an investor's account value falls below the margin maintenance amount.
Margin Trading
Margin trading involves trading a cryptocurrency using borrowed funds from a broker.
A market refers to the arena, online or offline, where commercial transactions occur.
Market Balances
Market balances represent the remaining amount of tokens or coins after a trade on a decentralized exchange.
Market Capitalization/Market Cap/MCAP
Market capitalization denotes the total capitalization of a cryptocurrency's price, ranking its relative size.
Market Maker, Market Taker
Market makers place orders, while market takers accept those orders on an exchange.
Market Making as a Service (MMaaS)
Market Making as a Service (MMaaS) enables token issuers to manage their liquidity and trade strategies.
Market Order/Market Buy/Market Sell
A market order entails purchasing or selling a cryptocurrency at the current best available price on an exchange.
Market Signal
Market signals indicate opportunities to investors through signaling created by market participants.
Markets in Crypto-Assets (MiCA)
Markets in Crypto-Assets (MiCA) regulation is a comprehensive framework by the European Union governing crypto issuance, trading, and services.
Marlowe, crafted by Input Output Hong Kong (IOHK), stands as an accessible programming language tailored for non-programmers, empowering them to author smart contracts geared towards financial products effortlessly.
Masternodes, akin to full nodes but endowed with additional functionalities like transaction anonymization, clearing, and governance participation, were first popularized by Dash, rewarding their operators for upholding the blockchain's integrity.
Max Supply
Max Supply embodies the highest anticipated quantity of coins that will ever circulate throughout the lifespan of a cryptocurrency, offering insight into its long-term availability. (refer to Circulating Supply and Total Supply for further details)
Maximal Extractable Value (MEV)
Maximal Extractable Value (MEV) quantifies the potential profit miners could amass by strategically including, excluding, or reordering transactions within the blocks they forge.
Medium of Exchange
Medium of Exchange serves as an intermediary mechanism facilitating the seamless exchange of goods, services, or assets between transacting parties.
Megahashes Per Second
Megahashes per Second (MH/s) emerges as a metric denoting the computational power capable of executing one million hashes per second, often employed in the realm of cryptocurrency mining.
Meme Economy
Meme Economy satirizes online culture, framing memes within financial discourse as if they were tradable commodities or investment assets.
Memecoins jestingly crafted as cryptocurrency tokens promise considerable returns to holders, often originating from meme-inspired concepts.
Memorandum of Understanding (MoU)
Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) represents a written accord between two or more parties, signifying mutual intentions, though not legally binding.
Mempool encapsulates a node's repository housing all unconfirmed transactions it has encountered, awaiting validation and inclusion into a block.
Mercenary Capital
Mercenary Capital characterizes opportunistic investments driven by short-term incentives provided by platforms, often pursued for individual gains.
Merkle Tree
Merkle Tree embodies a cryptographic tree structure where each leaf node bears the hash of a data block, facilitating efficient and secure blockchain data verification.
MetaMask emerges as a browser extension enabling users to manage, transfer, and receive Ethereum and its associated tokens seamlessly.
Metatransaction executes transactions on behalf of signers, alleviating the signer's burden of broadcasting transactions to the blockchain.
Metaverse constitutes a digital realm mirroring aspects of the physical world, featuring real-time interactions and economic activities, offering immersive experiences to users.
Metaverse-as-a-Service (MaaS)
Metaverse-as-a-Service (MaaS) furnishes a technological framework facilitating the creation of personalized metaverses, empowering developers and non-technical users to craft immersive virtual environments and experiences.
Metcalfe's Law
Metcalfe's Law elucidates the value of a network, positing that its worth burgeons exponentially with the square of its connected users.
Micro Cap
Micro Cap denotes digital assets with diminutive market capitalization, often occupying a niche within the financial sector.
MicroBitcoin (uBTC)
MicroBitcoin (uBTC), equivalent to one millionth of a Bitcoin, represents a fractional unit utilized in cryptocurrency transactions.
Micropayment epitomizes small-scale online transactions, capable of being as minuscule as a fraction of a cent, facilitating various digital exchanges.
Microtransaction underpins a business model where nominal payments are exchanged for digital goods or services, accommodating small-scale transactions.
Mid Cap
Mid Cap delineates cryptocurrencies with market capitalization ranging from $1 billion to $10 billion, occupying a middle ground between large-cap and small-cap assets.
MilliBitcoin, or mBTC, epitomizes a sub-unit of Bitcoin, equating to one-thousandth of a BTC, facilitating fractional transactions within the cryptocurrency realm.
Mimetic Theory
Mimetic Theory elucidates human behavior and cultural dynamics, offering insights into the desirability of certain entities within economic contexts.
Mineable cryptocurrencies allow miners to generate new coins by contributing computational power to the network, often through proof-of-work consensus mechanisms.
Mining Algorithm
Mining Algorithm comprises a set of rules governing the process of validating transactions and creating new blocks in a blockchain network, forming the backbone of cryptocurrency mining operations.
Mining as a Service (MaaS)
Mining as a Service (MaaS) enables users to lease mining capacity from cloud service providers, circumventing the need for hardware procurement and maintenance.
Mining Contract
Mining Contract, synonymous with cloud mining, empowers users to lease or invest in mining capacity remotely, often provided by third-party service providers.
Mining Difficulty
Mining Difficulty denotes the level of complexity associated with finding the correct hash for the next block in a blockchain network, dynamically adjusting to maintain a consistent block generation rate.
Mining Farm
Mining Farm refers to facilities housing a multitude of mining rigs, where miners collaborate to enhance their collective computational power and improve their chances of block discovery.
Mining Pool
Mining Pool represents a collective effort among miners, pooling their computational resources to increase their likelihood of successfully mining blocks and earning rewards.
Mining Reward
Mining Reward signifies the compensation received by miners for validating transactions and creating new blocks in a blockchain network.
Mining Rig
Mining Rig encompasses specialized hardware configurations optimized for cryptocurrency mining, facilitating efficient computation and block generation.
Minnow denotes a newcomer or small-scale investor in the cryptocurrency space, typically characterized by modest holdings or limited experience.
Minting embodies the process of generating new coins within a blockchain network, often employed in proof-of-stake systems to bolster network security and incentivize participation.
Mnemonic Phrase
Mnemonic Phrase, also known as a seed phrase, comprises a series of words used to access and restore cryptocurrency assets stored in a wallet.
Mnemonics serve as memory aids, employing mnemonic devices such as acronyms or associations to facilitate information retention and recall.
Mobile Wallet
Mobile Wallet represents a cryptocurrency wallet accessible via mobile devices, enabling users to manage their digital assets conveniently on the go.
Moloch DAO
Moloch DAO encompasses a DAO framework facilitating decentralized governance and resource allocation within the Ethereum ecosystem.
Monetary Authority of Singapore (MAS)
Monetary Authority of Singapore (MAS) functions as Singapore's central bank, overseeing monetary policy formulation and regulatory oversight within the financial sector.
Monetary Policy
Monetary Policy comprises a set of strategies employed by central banks to manage money supply, interest rates, and inflation, aiming to achieve macroeconomic stability and growth.
Money denotes a universally accepted medium of exchange, facilitating trade and economic transactions within societies.
Money Flow Index (MFI)
Money Flow Index (MFI) serves as a technical indicator gauging the buying or selling pressure within financial markets, predicated on price and volume dynamics.
Money Laundering
Money Laundering encompasses illicit processes aimed at concealing the origins of illegally obtained funds, often channeled through legitimate financial systems to obscure their source.
Money Market
Money Market represents a segment of the financial market dedicated to short-term borrowing, lending, and liquidity management, catering to the needs of borrowers and investors alike.
Money Transfer License
Money Transfer License, abbreviated as MTL, represents the regulatory authorization required for money transmitter businesses to operate legally.
Money Transmitter
Money Transmitter denotes a business entity engaged in facilitating money transfer services or providing payment instruments, subject to regulatory oversight and compliance.
Monopoly characterizes a market structure dominated by a single seller or entity, exerting significant control over pricing and market dynamics.
Moon signifies an exponential upward trend in the price of a cryptocurrency, often used colloquially to express anticipation of significant price appreciation.
Moore's Law
Moore's Law postulates that computing power doubles approximately every two years, fostering technological advancements and innovation across various industries.
Motoko Programming Language (DFINITY)
Motoko Programming Language serves as the primary coding language for developing applications on the Internet Computer blockchain, facilitating seamless integration and execution of smart contracts.
Move (Programming Language)
Move, originating from the Diem Association, represents a programming language tailored for developing projects on the Diem blockchain, designed to streamline the creation and execution of smart contracts.
Move-to-Earn epitomizes a blockchain-powered incentive model encouraging physical activity by rewarding participants with cryptocurrency-based incentives.
Moving Average (MA)
Moving Average (MA) serves as a technical analysis tool tracking asset price trends over specific time intervals, aiding in the identification of potential market trends and reversals.
Moving Average Convergence Divergence (MACD)
Moving Average Convergence Divergence (MACD) constitutes a popular technical indicator employed in financial analysis to gauge asset price momentum and trend reversals.
Mt. Gox
Mt. Gox, a now-defunct cryptocurrency exchange, once prominent in facilitating Bitcoin trading, met its demise following a significant hacking incident in 2014.
Multi-Chain underscores blockchain interoperability, advocating for seamless interaction and data exchange among disparate blockchain networks, fostering decentralization and scalability.
Multi-Coin Wallet
Multi-Coin Wallet accommodates the storage and management of multiple cryptocurrency assets across various blockchain networks, providing users with comprehensive portfolio management capabilities.
Multi-level Marketing
Multi-level Marketing (MLM) entails a business model reliant on hierarchical sales structures, where participants earn commissions based on both their sales and the recruitment efforts of their downline.
Multi-Party Computation
Multi-Party Computation (MPC) constitutes a cryptographic technique enabling multiple parties to jointly compute a function over their inputs while preserving data privacy and confidentiality.
Multi-Party Computation as-a-Service
Multi-Party Computation as-a-Service (MPCaaS) offers a service-oriented approach to deploying multi-party computation solutions, enabling enterprises and individuals to leverage MPC capabilities without the complexities of in-house implementation.
Multi-Signature (Multi-Sig)
Multi-Signature (Multi-Sig) adds an extra layer of security to transactions by necessitating the authorization of multiple parties before execution, mitigating the risk of unauthorized access or fraud.
Multisignature wallets necessitate the endorsement of multiple signatures to validate transactions, bolstering security and mitigating single-point vulnerabilities.
Mutual Credit Line
Mutual Credit Line embodies a decentralized exchange network facilitating reciprocal credit agreements among participants, fostering efficient value exchange and liquidity provision.
My Story (VeChain)
My Story, developed on the VeChain blockchain in collaboration with DNV, serves as a digital assurance platform, enabling product traceability and authenticity verification for consumers.


Name Wrapper
Name Wrapper represents a smart contract facilitating the conversion of registered Ethereum Name Service (ENS) names into non-fungible tokens (NFTs), enhancing their customizability and tradability.
Negative Volume Index (NVI)
Negative Volume Index (NVI) functions as a technical indicator gauging asset price movements relative to low-volume periods, offering insights into market sentiment and investor behavior.
Network encompasses all interconnected nodes comprising a blockchain ecosystem, facilitating data transmission, consensus, and decentralized governance.
Network Latency
Network Latency quantifies the time delay in data transmission between networked devices, impacting the responsiveness and efficiency of communication channels.
Network-Enhanced Virtual Machine (NEVM)
Network-Enhanced Virtual Machine (NEVM) amalgamates attributes from Bitcoin and Ethereum networks, enabling enhanced interoperability and scalability for smart contract execution.
Newb denotes an individual new to a particular industry or community, often characterized by a lack of experience or familiarity with the subject matter.
NFT Royalties
NFT Royalties represent a mechanism enabling creators to earn a percentage of subsequent sales each time their non-fungible tokens (NFTs) are traded on secondary markets, fostering ongoing revenue streams.
Nick Szabo
Nick Szabo, credited as the inventor of Bit Gold and a pioneering figure in the development of smart contracts, holds significant influence in the cryptocurrency and blockchain space.
Nifty Gateway
Nifty Gateway stands as an NFT platform owned by the Winklevoss twins, facilitating the creation, sale, and exchange of digital collectibles and artworks.
No-Coiner describes an individual devoid of cryptocurrency holdings in their investment portfolio, often expressing skepticism or disbelief in the long-term viability of cryptocurrencies.
Node represents the fundamental unit of blockchain infrastructure, responsible for storing, validating, and relaying data within the network.
Node.js constitutes a cross-platform JavaScript runtime environment, enabling the execution of JavaScript code outside of web browsers, popular for server-side applications and networked services.
Nominators, integral to blockchain networks utilizing the nominated proof-of-stake (NPoS) consensus algorithm, participate in network governance and validator selection processes.
Non-Custodial refers to a storage or service model where users retain control of their private keys, eliminating reliance on third-party custodians and enhancing security.
Non-fungible Assets
Non-fungible Assets, distinguished by their unique properties and individualized attributes, lack interchangeability within a collection or marketplace, rendering them distinct from fungible counterparts.
Non-Fungible Token (NFT)
Non-Fungible Token (NFT) represents a unique cryptographic asset, indivisible and distinguishable from other tokens, often used to authenticate ownership of digital or physical assets.
Nonce, a cryptographic term, signifies a unique number utilized only once within a system, often employed in blockchain protocols to prevent replay attacks and ensure transactional integrity.
Nonce Error
Nonce Error denotes a computational anomaly arising from the improper usage or mishandling of nonce values within a system, potentially disrupting its normal operations.
Notarization on Blockchain
Notarization on Blockchain leverages the inherent properties of blockchain technology to create secure and immutable timestamps, facilitating identity verification and authorship attribution for digital artifacts.


Odysee presents itself as a server-less video hosting and distribution platform, leveraging the LBRY protocol for its infrastructure.
Off-Chain transactions occur outside the blockchain network, offering expedited processing and reduced costs.
Off-Chain Governance
Off-chain governance involves informal decision-making processes detached from the primary blockchain code base.
Off-Chain Transaction
An off-chain transaction operates on a second-layer protocol, facilitating transactions outside the blockchain.
Off-Ledger Currency
Off-ledger currency is minted outside a specified blockchain ledger but remains accepted or utilized within the ecosystem.
Office of the Comptroller of the Currency (OCC)
The Office of the Comptroller (OCC) oversees and regulates national banks and federal savings associations within the U.S. Treasury.
Offline Storage
Offline storage involves safeguarding cryptocurrencies in devices or systems disconnected from the internet.
Offshore Account
An offshore account resides in a foreign bank, holding assets and investments outside one's home country.
OHM Fork
OHM Forks denote upgrades to OlympusDAO's codebase, spawning various forked products.
On-Balance Volume (OBV)
On-balance volume (OBV) predicts asset price movements based on volume flow in technical trading analysis.
On-chain transactions are recorded directly on the blockchain and shared among all participants.
On-Chain Governance
On-chain governance organizes updates and improvements to blockchain networks in a decentralized manner.
On-Ledger Currency
On-ledger currency is minted and utilized within a blockchain ledger, like Bitcoin.
Onchain Fiat
Onchain fiat enables seamless transitions between traditional bank accounts and web3 within the blockchain.
One Cancels the Other Order (OCO)
OCO orders involve placing two simultaneous cryptocurrency orders, with one cancelling the other upon acceptance.
Online Storage
Online storage entails keeping cryptocurrencies in internet-connected devices or systems.
Ontorand Consensus Engine (Ontology)
Ontorand Consensus Engine, utilizing the VBFT mechanism, powers the Ontology blockchain.
Open Interest
Open interest signifies outstanding derivative contracts held by market participants at the end of a trading session.
Open Source
Open source advocates for the free sharing of information for the common good.
Open/Close refers to cryptocurrency prices at the beginning and end of a time period or the extensibility of software parts.
OpenSea serves as a decentralized P2P platform for trading NFTs.
Opera Mainnet (Fantom)
Opera (Fantom) is a permissionless framework enabling staking and governance participation.
Operating System (OS)
An operating system manages resources between hardware and users in software systems.
Optimistic Oracle
Optimistic oracles verify data accuracy via dispute/arbitration processes in contrast to price-feed oracles.
Optimistic Rollup
Optimistic rollups scale layer-2 solutions by recording transactions off-chain trustlessly.
Options give buyers the right, but not the obligation, to buy or sell assets at specified prices.
Options Market
Options markets facilitate buying or selling cryptocurrencies at specific prices by specific dates.
Oracle Manipulation
Oracle manipulation involves hackers tampering with smart contract oracles.
Oracles provide data to smart contracts for execution under specified conditions, bridging the real world and blockchain.
Order Book
Order books display key information about asset trading.
An orphan is a valid block on the blockchain not part of the main chain.
Orphaned Block
An orphaned block lacks a parent block or is unknown.
Ouroboros Praos
Ouroboros Praos is IOHK's proof-of-stake consensus mechanism, an evolution of Ouroboros Classic.
Over-collateralization involves providing collateral exceeding potential losses in default scenarios.
Over-the-Counter (OTC)
OTC transactions occur outside exchanges, often peer-to-peer.
Over-the-Counter (OTC) Trading
OTC trading bypasses centralized exchanges through broker-dealer networks.
Assets are overbought when purchased excessively, leading to extended price increases.
Assets are oversold when sold excessively, leading to extended price decreases.


P2P Bridge
A P2P bridge is a decentralized exchange (DEX) feature facilitating direct swaps of the same cryptocurrency across different blockchain protocols without involving intermediaries.
P2P DEX, or peer-to-peer decentralized exchange, is a blockchain-based platform enabling direct P2P trading.
P2P Trading
Peer-to-peer (P2P) trading allows decentralized transactions where users directly exchange cryptocurrencies without third-party involvement.
A pair refers to trading between one cryptocurrency and another, such as the BTC/ETH trading pair.
Paper Trading
Paper trading, or simulated trading, involves practicing trading in a virtual environment without using real capital.
Paper Wallet
A paper wallet is a physical document storing private keys or seed phrases for cryptocurrency storage.
Parachains are specialized data structures running parallel within Polkadot's ecosystem.
Participation Node
Participation nodes in Algorand facilitate the Pure Proof of Stake (PPoS) consensus process.
Passive Income
Passive income refers to earnings generated from investments without active involvement.
Password Manager
A password manager is a tool storing passwords for online services securely.
Paul Le Roux
Paul Le Roux is a criminal figure speculated to be the pseudonymous Bitcoin creator, Satoshi Nakamoto.
A payee is a party receiving payment in an exchange of goods or services.
Peer-to-Peer (P2P)
Peer-to-peer (P2P) interactions in a distributed network involve decentralized task partitioning among peers.
Peer-to-Peer (P2P) Lending
Crypto P2P lending enables asset lending without intermediaries, often backed by borrower-owned collateral.
A "peg" denotes a specified price for exchanging between two assets.
Pegged Currency
A stablecoin's value is pegged to a real-world asset like fiat currency.
Permissioned Ledger
A permissioned ledger restricts access, allowing only authorized individuals or entities to participate.
Permissionless systems, like blockchains, allow usage without central regulation.
Perpetual Contracts
Perpetual contracts resemble futures contracts but lack expiry dates.
Phishing involves fraudulent attempts to obtain sensitive information by posing as trusted entities.
Phone Phishing
Phone phishing, or vishing, involves using fraudulent calls to extract sensitive information.
Physical Bitcoins
Physical bitcoins are tangible tokens with intricate designs and embedded public/private keys.
A platform refers to a blockchain hosting tokens or a cryptocurrency exchange facilitating trading.
Play-to-Earn (Play2Earn)
Play-to-earn models reward participants in virtual economies for creating value.
Play2Earn (Play-to-Earn)
Play-to-earn models reward participants in virtual economies for creating value.
Player Payout
Player payouts automate payments to online gaming participants post-tournament.
Plutus (Cardano)
Plutus is Cardano's scripting language for smart contract development.
Politeia (Decred)
Politeia is Decred's decentralized governance platform for proposing and implementing ideas.
Ponzi Scheme
A Ponzi scheme involves paying returns to existing investors from new investors' contributions.
A portfolio comprises various cryptocurrencies or assets held by an individual or institution.
Portfolio Tracking
Portfolio tracking monitors the performance of financial assets like cryptocurrencies and NFTs.
Position Size
Position size management is crucial in trading for optimizing profit and loss.
Post-mine involves retroactively creating new coins after a cryptocurrency's launch.
Pre-IDO refers to token offerings preceding the initial DEX offering (IDO).
Pre-mine involves generating some or all of a coin's initial supply before public launch.
Pre-sale offers cryptocurrency to specific investors before public availability.
Prediction Market
Prediction markets trade future event outcomes, indicating crowd confidence.
Price Impact
Price impact measures market price deviation due to trade size.
Private Blockchain
A private blockchain allows a single organization's control over network access.
Private Key/Secret Key
A private key encrypts data and pairs with a public key for decryption.
Procedural Programming
Procedural programming involves step-by-step instructions for task execution.
Profit and Loss (P&L) Statement
A P&L statement summarizes earnings and expenses over a period.
Programmability enables executing instructions.
Programmable Privacy
Programmable privacy allows customizable privacy settings in decentralized applications.
Proof Market
Proof markets trade cryptographic proofs for ownership and transaction verification.
Proof of Attendance Protocol
POAP provides unique blockchain-based identifiers using ERC-721 NFTs.
Proof of Reserves (PoR)
PoR verifies digital asset possession using cryptographic methods.
Proof of Stake Authority (PoSA)
PoSA combines Proof of Stake and Proof of Authority mechanisms.
Proof-of-Authority (PoA)
PoA delivers fast transactions using identity as stake.
PoB aims to prevent fraud and improve blockchain efficiency.
Proof-of-Burn (PoB)
PoB verifies cost by burning coins in one blockchain to bootstrap another.
Proof-of-Developer (PoD)
PoD verifies real developers behind cryptocurrencies.
PoD integrates charitable donations into blockchain.
Proof-of-History (PoH)
PoH nodes validate events using verifiable delay functions, enhancing blockchain scalability.
Proof-of-Immutability (PoIM)
PoIM ensures data persistence and privacy in a decentralized network.
PoRep ensures storage miners maintain unique data copies.
PoSt guarantees allocated storage space.
Proof-of-Stake (PoS)
PoS maintains blockchain integrity without intensive computation.
Proof-of-Time (PoT)
PoT is a secure consensus algorithm using validator ranking and fixed stakes.
PoV achieves consensus through staked validators.
Proof-of-Work (PoW)
PoW validates transactions through computational puzzles.
Protocols define network interactions, including consensus and transaction validation.
Protocol Layer
Protocol layers govern blockchain network operations.
Pseudonymous identities use false names, like "Satoshi Nakamoto."
Public Address
A public address allows receiving cryptocurrency payments.
Public Blockchain
Public blockchains are accessible to anyone.
Public Key
A public key encrypts data and pairs with a private key for decryption.
Public Sale
A public sale offers tokens to the public after ICO stages.
Public-Key Cryptography
Public-key cryptography secures data transmission.
Public-Key Infrastructure
PKI manages digital certificates and encryption.
Pump and Dump (P&D) Scheme
P&D schemes artificially inflate cryptocurrency prices before dumping them.
Pure Proof of Stake (PPoS)
PPoS randomly selects validators based on stake consistency.
Put Option
A put option grants the option to sell an asset at a specified price.
Pyramid Scheme
Pyramid schemes rely on hierarchical structures for profit.


QR Code
A QR code is a graphical black-and-white pattern encoding information for machine-readable scanning.
Quant Zone (FTX Exchange)
The Quant Zone on FTX Exchange is a tool facilitating the creation and sharing of trading strategies.
Quantum Bit (Qubit)
A qubit, or quantum bit, is a unit of measurement for quantum information processing.
Quantum Computing
Quantum computing utilizes quantum mechanics phenomena for more efficient computations compared to classical computers.
Quasar Smart Contract (OMG Foundation)
The Quasar Smart Contract by OMG Network addresses layer-2 blockchain challenges.
Quorum (Governance)
​A quorum is the minimum required members for valid proceedings in an assembly or group meeting.


Radio Frequency Identification (RFID)
RFID technology utilizes radio waves to passively identify tagged items or individuals.

Rage-quit is the process wherein a member exits part or all of their stake from a DAO, taking a proportional share of the assets in the DAO’s treasury, and discontinues their participation.

Raiden Network
The Raiden Network is an off-chain scaling solution aiming to facilitate near-instant, low-fee, and scalable payments on the Ethereum blockchain, akin to Bitcoin's proposed Lightning Network.

Rank refers to the relative position of a cryptocurrency by market capitalization.

Ransomware is a form of malware employed by hackers to encrypt or steal victims’ files, demanding a ransom in exchange for decryption or restoration.

Real World Assets (RWAs)
Real World Assets are off-chain assets tokenized and brought on-chain for use in DeFi, involving the conversion of an asset's value into digital tokens for representation and transactions on the blockchain.

Rebalancing involves realigning the weightage of a portfolio of assets through periodic buying or selling to maintain a targeted level of asset allocation and risk.

A token with an automatic circulating supply adjustment based on price fluctuations.

Recovery Seed
A recovery seed is a cryptographic security code composed of a list of random words, typically ranging between 12 and 14, used to restore a cryptocurrency wallet.

Recursion refers to a function calling itself directly or indirectly in a circular loop.

Redundancy refers to excess capacity beyond what is required for normal operation.

Regenerative Economy
A regenerative economy is a circular economic system that benefits both the environment and society.

Regenerative Finance (ReFi)
Regenerative Finance is a system that replenishes its resource capacity over time.

Regen, akin to degen, describes a crypto user involved in ReFi communities or investing in tokens aiming for positive environmental impact through blockchain technology.

Regional/Local/Community Currencies
Regional, local, and community currencies are used within specific geographical areas or communities as a means of exchange.

Regulated refers to being controlled by a specific set of rules or regulations.

Regulatory Compliance
Regulatory compliance involves adhering to mandated rules and regulations to ensure accountability in the workplace.

Rehypothecation is the practice of using assets posted as collateral by clients for one's own purposes, common among banks and brokers.

REKT is a slang term for being "wrecked," describing a significant loss in a trade or investment.

Relative Strength Index (RSI)
RSI is a momentum oscillator used in technical analysis to measure the speed and change of price movements.

Relay Chain
The Relay Chain serves as the central chain used by the Polkadot network.

Relay Nodes
Relay nodes ensure communication among block-producing nodes, preserving the authenticity of the core nodes and the blockchain's integrity, even if some relays are compromised.

Renewable Energy
Renewable energy is derived from sources such as solar and wind that replenish naturally over time.

Repair Miners
Repair miners are proposed nodes within the Filecoin network dedicated to repairing and maintaining data storage.

Replay Attack
A replay attack intercepts communication between a sender and receiver in a network security breach.

Replicated Ledger
A replicated ledger is a copy of a distributed ledger distributed among all participants in a cryptocurrency network.

Replicated Security (RS)
Replicated Security (RS) enables a Cosmos blockchain to share its economic security with another using the Inter-Blockchain Communication protocol (IBC).

Resistance (Line/Level)
Resistance refers to the highest price level of an asset during a specific period.

Retargeting is the adjustment of difficulty in proof-of-work blockchains like Bitcoin to maintain a consistent block generation rate.

Revenue Participation Tokens
Revenue participation tokens involve a two-token system comprising participation and payout tokens.

Reverse ICO
In a reverse ICO, an established company raises funds by tokenizing its structure to transition toward decentralization.

Reverse Indicator
A reverse indicator is someone whose trading decisions consistently lead to incorrect predictions of cryptocurrency price movements.

Ring CT (Confidential Transactions)
RingCT is a method in Monero where transaction amounts are obfuscated for privacy.

Ring Miners
Ring miners in the Loopring protocol manage order rings to ensure trades are completed for all parties involved.

Ring Signature
A ring signature is a cryptographic digital signature that conceals the identities of two parties in a transaction.

A roadmap is a visual summary outlining the vision and direction of a product.

Roger Ver
Roger Ver, known as Bitcoin Jesus, is a long-time advocate of Bitcoin and Bitcoin Cash.

ROI stands for "Return on Investment," measuring the ratio between net profit and the cost of investment.

Roth IRA
A Roth IRA is an investment option advantageous when anticipating higher taxes in retirement.

Rough Consensus
Rough consensus is a decision-making method not reliant on unanimous agreement.

Ruby (Programming Language)
Ruby is a high-level programming language known for its simplicity and readability.

Rug Pull
A rug pull is a scam where developers abandon a project, absconding with investors' funds.

Rust is a multi-paradigm programming language similar to C++.

Ryuk Ransomware
Ryuk ransomware is a malicious software first identified in August 2018, used for ransom attacks.


S&P 500 (Standard and Poor's 500)
The Standard and Poor's 500, commonly known as S&P 500, is a stock market index comprising 500 publicly traded companies in the United States, providing insight into the overall performance of the U.S. equity market.

Satoshi (SATS)
A Satoshi is the smallest unit of Bitcoin, equal to one hundred millionth of a bitcoin (0.00000001 BTC), named after the pseudonymous creator of Bitcoin, Satoshi Nakamoto.

Satoshi Nakamoto
Satoshi Nakamoto is the pseudonymous individual or group behind the creation of Bitcoin, having authored the original white paper and implemented the first blockchain database.

Scaling Problem
The scaling problem refers to the challenge of increasing a blockchain's transaction throughput and efficiency to accommodate a larger user base without sacrificing speed or cost-effectiveness.

Scaling Solution
A scaling solution refers to any method or technique implemented to address the scaling problem, enabling a blockchain network to handle a higher volume of transactions and improve its scalability.

A scam is a fraudulent scheme designed to deceive individuals or organizations, often resulting in financial loss or harm.

Scamcoin refers to a cryptocurrency created by developers with the intention of deceiving investors, typically lacking genuine utility or value.

A scammer is an individual or entity that engages in fraudulent activities or schemes to deceive others for personal gain.

In the Axie Infinity universe, a scholarship involves experienced players lending their Axies to new players (scholars), allowing them to earn rewards while learning the game.

A script refers to a set of instructions or commands written in a programming language to perform specific tasks or functions within a software application.

Scripting Programming Language
A scripting language is a type of programming language that executes scripts, enabling developers to automate tasks or manipulate data without the need for compilation.

Scrypt is an alternative proof-of-work (PoW) algorithm used in cryptocurrency mining, designed to be memory-intensive and resistant to ASIC mining.

Second-Layer Solutions
Second-layer solutions are additional protocols or technologies built on top of a blockchain's base layer to improve scalability, speed, and efficiency, often facilitating off-chain transactions.

Secondary Market
The secondary market is where investors trade existing securities, such as stocks or bonds, among themselves, after the initial issuance by the company or government.

Secure Asset Fund for Users (SAFU)
SAFU is an insurance fund established by Binance to protect users' assets in case of emergencies or unexpected events, providing an additional layer of security for traders.

Secure Element
A secure element is a specialized hardware chip used to store sensitive information and perform secure cryptographic operations, commonly found in devices like smartphones and smart cards.

Secure Multi-Party Computation (sMPC)
Secure Multi-Party Computation (sMPC) is a cryptographic technique that enables multiple parties to jointly compute a function while keeping their inputs private.

Secure Proof of Stake (SPoS)
Secure Proof of Stake (SPoS) is a consensus mechanism used in blockchain networks to secure transactions and validate blocks, enhancing the security and efficiency of traditional proof-of-stake (PoS) algorithms.

Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC)
The Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) is a regulatory agency in the United States responsible for enforcing federal securities laws and overseeing the securities industry, exchanges, and financial professionals.

Security refers to the measures taken to protect computer systems, networks, and data from unauthorized access, cyberattacks, and other threats.

Security Token
A security token is a digital asset that represents ownership or investment in a tradable financial instrument, subject to securities regulations.

Security Token Offering (STO)
A security token offering (STO) is a fundraising method where digital securities are issued and sold to investors, complying with securities laws and regulations.

Seed Funding
Seed funding is the initial capital provided to start-up companies or entrepreneurs to develop a business idea or prototype in exchange for equity.

Seed Phrase
A seed phrase, also known as a recovery phrase or mnemonic phrase, is a sequence of words used to generate a deterministic wallet's private keys, enabling wallet recovery and key derivation.

Segregated Witness (SegWit)
Segregated Witness (SegWit) is a protocol upgrade implemented in Bitcoin to increase transaction capacity and fix transaction malleability by separating signature data from transaction data.

Selfish Mining
Selfish mining is a strategy where a miner mines a new block but delays broadcasting it to other miners, aiming to gain a competitive advantage and control over block propagation.

Sell Wall
A sell wall is a large limit order placed on a cryptocurrency exchange, representing a significant volume of tokens offered for sale at a specific price, potentially acting as resistance to price increases.

Semantic Web
The Semantic Web is an extension of the World Wide Web that aims to make web content more machine-readable and understandable, enabling intelligent data analysis and automated tasks.

Series B Funding
Series B funding is the second round of financing for a start-up company, typically involving venture capital investors and aimed at scaling operations and expanding market reach.

Settlement refers to the process of finalizing and executing financial transactions, particularly in the context of trading securities or assets on decentralized exchanges (DEXs).

Settlement Layer
A settlement layer is a foundational component of a blockchain network responsible for recording and confirming transactions, providing a secure and immutable ledger of asset ownership.

SHA-256 is a cryptographic hash function used in Bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies to secure transactions and generate unique identifiers, producing a 256-bit hash value from input data.

Shamir’s Secret Sharing
Shamir’s Secret Sharing is a cryptographic technique that divides a secret into multiple shares, requiring a threshold number of shares to reconstruct the original secret.

Shanghai Upgrade
The Shanghai Upgrade is a planned improvement to the Ethereum network that aims to enhance its scalability and efficiency, allowing users to unstake and withdraw Ethereum assets.

A shard is a partition or subset of a blockchain network that stores a portion of the network's data and processing workload, enabling parallel transaction processing and scalability improvements.

Shard Chain
A shard chain is a blockchain segment or shard responsible for processing and validating transactions within a specific subset of the network, enhancing overall scalability and performance.

Sharding is a scaling technique used in blockchain networks to partition data and transaction processing across multiple smaller chains or shards, improving network throughput and efficiency.

Shelley Phase
Shelley Phase is the second era of the Cardano blockchain, named after the poet Percy Bysshe Shelley, focusing on decentralization and governance enhancements.

Shiba Inu Token (SHIB)
Shiba Inu Token (SHIB) is a decentralized meme cryptocurrency token based on the Ethereum blockchain, inspired by the Shiba Inu dog breed.

Shielded Address
A shielded address is a cryptographic address used in privacy-centric cryptocurrencies, concealing transaction details and protecting user privacy through advanced encryption techniques.

Shielded Transaction
A shielded transaction is a privacy-enhanced transaction conducted between shielded addresses, utilizing cryptographic techniques to obscure transaction data and preserve user anonymity.

Shilling refers to the practice of excessively promoting or endorsing a cryptocurrency or initial coin offering (ICO) project, often for personal gain or profit.

Shitcoin is a derogatory term used to describe a cryptocurrency with little to no value, utility, or genuine purpose, often associated with scams or pump-and-dump schemes.

SHO (Strong Holder Offering)
SHO, or Strong Holder Offering, is a fundraising method where eligible investors are selected based on their on-chain activity and participation criteria, aiming to reward long-term holders.

Shorting is a trading strategy where an investor borrows an asset and sells it, anticipating a decline in price, with the intention of buying it back at a lower price to return to the lender, profiting from the price difference.

Short Squeeze
A short squeeze occurs when a heavily shorted asset experiences a rapid price increase, forcing short sellers to buy back the asset to cover their positions, further driving up the price.

Side Channel Attack
A side channel attack is a cyberattack technique that exploits vulnerabilities in a system's physical or operational characteristics, rather than its computational algorithms, to extract sensitive information.

A sidechain is a separate blockchain network interoperable with a primary blockchain, allowing for the transfer of assets and data between different blockchain ecosystems.

A signal in trading refers to a specific indication or trigger prompting investors to buy, sell, or take action on a financial asset based on technical or fundamental analysis.

Silk Road
Silk Road was an online black market operating on the dark web, known for facilitating the anonymous sale of illegal goods and services, including drugs and weapons, before being shut down by law enforcement.

SIM-Swap is a type of cyberattack where an attacker fraudulently transfers a victim's phone number to a new SIM card under their control, allowing them to intercept calls, messages, terpreted to execute software applications.

A special purpose acquisition company (SPAC) is a publicly traded shell company formed to raise capital through an initial public offering (IPO) with the sole purpose of acquiring or merging with an existing business.

Spear Phishing
Spear phishing is a targeted cyberattack technique where attackers send personalized emails or messages to specific individuals or organizations, attempting to trick them into revealing sensitive information or installing malware.

Speculative Investment
Speculative investment involves purchasing assets, such as stocks or cryptocurrencies, with the expectation of generating significant returns, despite the high risk of loss or volatility associated with such investments.

Spoon (Blockchain)
A hard spoon is a protocol upgrade or meta-protocol introduced on top of an existing blockchain, creating a separate network or ecosystem with modified rules or features.

In trading, spot refers to the purchase or sale of a financial asset for immediate delivery and settlement at the current market price, as opposed to futures or derivatives contracts.

Spot Market
The spot market is where financial assets, such as cryptocurrencies, currencies, commodities, or securities, are traded for immediate delivery and settlement, facilitating direct transactions between buyers and sellers.

Spot Trading
Spot trading involves buying or selling financial assets, such as cryptocurrencies or stocks, for immediate delivery and settlement at the current market price, without the use of derivatives or futures contracts.

Spyware is malicious software designed to covertly monitor and gather information about a computer user's activities without their consent, often used for espionage, surveillance, or data theft.

A stablecoin is a type of cryptocurrency designed to maintain a stable value relative to a fiat currency, commodity, or algorithmic mechanism, reducing price volatility and facilitating everyday transactions.

Stacking Sats
"Stacking sats" refers to the practice of accumulating small amounts of Bitcoin (sats), typically in reference to Satoshi, the smallest unit of Bitcoin, as a long-term investment strategy.

Stagflation is an economic phenomenon characterized by stagnant economic growth, high unemployment, and rising inflation, presenting challenges for policymakers and central banks.

Staking is a process in proof-of-stake (PoS) blockchain networks where participants lock up their tokens as collateral to validate transactions, secure the network, and earn rewards.

Staking Pool
A staking pool is a collective of cryptocurrency holders who combine their resources to increase their chances of earning rewards by collectively staking tokens and participating in network consensus.

Stale Block
A stale block, also known as an orphan block, is a valid block that was successfully mined but not included in the blockchain's main consensus due to another block at the same height being accepted first.

State Channel
A state channel is a layer-two scaling solution that enables off-chain transactions between participants, reducing the burden on the main blockchain and improving scalability and efficiency.

Stochastic Oscillator
A stochastic oscillator is a technical analysis tool used to measure the momentum of an asset's price movement and identify overbought or oversold conditions in the market, based on historical price data.

Stock-to-Flow Ratio
The stock-to-flow ratio is a quantitative model used to assess the scarcity of a commodity, particularly precious metals or cryptocurrencies, by comparing the existing stockpile (stock) to the annual production (flow).

Stop-Loss Order
A stop-loss order is a risk management tool used by traders to automatically sell a financial asset when its price reaches a predetermined level, limiting potential losses in a declining market.

Storage (Decentralized)
Decentralized storage refers to the distribution of data storage across a network of nodes, rather than relying on a centralized server or data center, enhancing security, reliability, and censorship resistance.

Storage Miners
Storage miners are participants in decentralized storage networks who contribute storage space and computational resources to store and retrieve data, earning rewards in the form of cryptocurrency tokens.

Storage Node
A storage node is a network participant in decentralized storage systems responsible for storing and maintaining encrypted data fragments, contributing to the overall storage capacity and resilience of the network.

Store of Value
A store of value is an asset or commodity that maintains its purchasing power over time and can be reliably saved, retrieved, and exchanged in the future, preserving wealth and value.

A stroop is the smallest unit of Lumens (XLM), the native cryptocurrency of the Stellar blockchain, used to measure transaction fees and prevent spam on the network.

Subgraph Manifest
A subgraph manifest is a component of a subgraph, containing metadata and configuration details, such as data sources and indexing rules, used to query and retrieve blockchain data efficiently.

A subnet is a smaller network segment within a larger network, sharing common characteristics or functions, often used to organize and manage network resources more efficiently.

Substrate is a blockchain development framework developed by Parity Technologies, providing tools and libraries for building customized blockchain networks with modular architecture and cross-compatibility.

Succinct Proofs of Random Access (SPoRA)
Succinct Proofs of Random Access (SPoRA) is a consensus mechanism used in decentralized networks like Arweave to validate transactions and secure blocks, offering efficient and scalable data storage and retrieval.

A supercomputer is an extremely powerful and high-performance computing system capable of processing massive amounts of data and performing complex calculations at unparalleled speeds, often used in scientific research, simulations, and modeling.

In economics and finance, a supercycle refers to an extended period of robust growth or expansion in a particular market or asset class, typically lasting several years or decades, driven by structural factors and fundamental shifts.

Supply and Demand
Supply and demand are fundamental economic principles that determine the price and availability of goods and services in a market, reflecting the interplay between producers and consumers' preferences and behaviors.

Supply Chain
A supply chain is a network of interconnected entities, organizations, and activities involved in the production, distribution, and delivery of goods or services from suppliers to end customers.

Supply Chain Attack
A supply chain attack is a cybersecurity threat where attackers compromise a third-party supplier's systems or software to gain unauthorized access to a target organization's network, data, or resources.

Support Level
A support level in trading refers to a price level where a financial asset tends to find buying interest and prevent further decline, often indicating strong demand and investor confidence in the asset's value.

Surge (Ethereum)
The Ethereum Surge refers to a developmental phase of the Ethereum network, involving significant upgrades and improvements, including the implementation of sharding to enhance scalability and performance.

A swarm is a decentralized network of nodes or participants working together to achieve a common goal, often used in peer-to-peer systems, distributed computing, and decentralized storage networks.

Swing Failure Pattern (SFP)
A swing failure pattern (SFP) is a technical analysis pattern observed in financial markets, signaling a potential reversal in trend direction following a failed attempt to breach support or resistance levels.

Swing Trading
Swing trading is a trading strategy that seeks to profit from short to medium-term price movements in financial assets, such as stocks, currencies, or cryptocurrencies, by capturing swings or fluctuations in market prices.

Sybil Attack
A Sybil attack is a cybersecurity threat where an attacker creates multiple fake identities or nodes to gain control or influence over a network, undermining its integrity, security, and consensus mechanisms.

A symbol is a unique identifier or ticker used to represent a cryptocurrency or financial asset in trading, typically consisting of alphabetic characters or abbreviations, such as Bitcoin (BTC) or Ethereum (ETH).

Symmetric Key Cryptography
Symmetric key cryptography is a cryptographic technique that uses a single shared key for both encryption and decryption of data, providing secure communication and confidentiality between parties.

Synthetic Asset
A synthetic asset is a digital representation or tokenized version of a real-world asset or financial instrument, created and traded on a blockchain network, enabling exposure to asset classes traditionally inaccessible to investors.


T-Address (Zcash)
A T-address is one of the two types of addresses available for the privacy-focused cryptocurrency, Zcash, used when transparency is desired.
Taint represents the percentage of cryptocurrency in an account that can be traced to another account.
Take Profit
A take-profit order involves selling cryptocurrency to secure profits, usually executed at a predetermined price when the trade is in profit.
Tamper-Proof Ledger
A tamper-proof ledger is essentially any system of records that has the fundamental properties of a blockchain distributed ledger.
The Tangle is a blockchain alternative developed by IOTA, using directed acyclic graphs which only builds in one single direction and in a way that it never repeats, and is quantum-computing resistant.
Taproot is an instantiation of a soft fork for Bitcoin, intended to both improve privacy and improve other aspects tied to more complex transactions.
Tardigrade (Storj)
Tardigrade is the decentralized cloud storage service provided by the Storj platform.
Technical Analysis/Trend Analysis (TA)
Technical analysis, or trend analysis, involves statistical analyses of market activity, such as price and volume, to identify patterns and drive investment decisions using charts and other tools.
Technical Indicators
Technical indicators are statistical algorithms or pattern-based indications based on a security's or contract's historical price, volume, and/or open interest.
Tendermint is a consensus mechanism that allows applications to launch across different machines securely and consistently.
Terahashes Per Second
Terahashes per second (Th/s) is equivalent to 1 trillion (1,000,000,000,000) hashes per second, indicating the power of a computer or mining machine.
A testnet is an alternative blockchain used by developers for testing.
The Barbell Strategy
The barbell strategy involves investors putting their money in two extremes of high-risk and no-risk assets while ignoring the middle-risk assets.
The Cantillon Effect
The Cantillon Effect, developed by Richard Cantillon, is a change in relative prices resulting from a change in the money supply.
The DAO is the first decentralized autonomous organization, created by a group of developers in April 2016.
The Merge (Ethereum 2.0)
The merge is a planned network upgrade that will combine the Ethereum mainnet and the Beacon Chain to transition from the proof-of-work consensus mechanism to the proof-of-stake system.
Think Long Term (TLT)
Thinking long term (TLT) involves having a longer-term investment horizon of months to years.
This Is Gentlemen
Originally an error in writing the full “This is it, gentlemen”, it is now used as an introduction for good news.
Throughput measures how many actions can be completed in a given time frame.
A ticker is an abbreviation used to uniquely identify cryptocurrencies. (See Symbol)
Ticker Symbol
The ticker symbol is the unique combination of letters assigned to stocks or cryptocurrencies that makes them distinguishable on exchanges and other trading applications.
Time-Weighted Automated Market Maker (TWAMM)
Time-Weighted Automated Market Maker (TWAMM) aims to help traders execute large orders with minimal slippage and low gas fees without negatively affecting the price.
Time-weighted Average Price (TWAP)
The time-weighted average price (TWAP) is a trading indicator based on weighted average price, showing the average price of an asset as it rises and falls during a specific time period.
Timelock or Locktime is a condition for a transaction to only be processed at a certain time or block on the blockchain.
A timestamp is a form of identification for when a certain transaction occurred.
A tipset is a set, rather than a chain, of blocks that make up a blockchain.
A token is a digital unit designed with utility in mind, providing access and use of a larger crypto economic system.
Token Economy
A token economy consists of goods and services that can run without intermediaries and third parties with the help of blockchain technology.
Token Generation Event (TGE)
The token generation event (TGE) is the time at which a token is issued.
Token Issuance
Token issuance is the process of creating new tokens and adding them to the total token supply of a cryptocurrency.
Token Lockup
Token lockup refers to a time period during which cryptocurrency tokens cannot be exchanged or traded.
Token Migration
Token migration refers to the process of moving tokens from one blockchain to another as a result of a change in the blockchain.
Token Sale
A token sale refers to the initial offering of a cryptocurrency token to a private pool of investors before it officially goes on the market.
Token Standard
The most common token standard today is the Ethereum Request for Comment or ERC.
Token Swap
Token swap refers to the direct exchange of a certain amount of one cryptocurrency token for another between users facilitated by a special exchange service. It can also be defined as the migration of a cryptocurrency token built on top of one blockchain platform to a different blockchain.
Tokenization is the process by which real-world assets are turned into something of digital value called a token, often subsequently able to offer ownership of parts of this asset to different owners.
Tokenized Carbon Credits
Tokenized carbon credits represent carbon that has been avoided or removed from the environment, with one metric tonne of carbon verifiably avoided or removed translating to one carbon credit.
Tokenized Securities
Tokenized securities materialize the ownership of a security through the issuance of a token.
Tokenized Stocks
Tokenized stocks are digital assets that are traded on exchanges using blockchain technology.
Tokenomics is the science of token economy consisting of a set of rules that govern a cryptocurrency's issuance and supply.
TokenSets (Set Protocol)
TokenSets is a Set Protocol-based decentralized platform for crypto portfolio management.
Toll Bridge
A toll bridge is a bridge powered by a smart contract where a monetary value called a toll fee unlocks access to extra functionalities.
Tor is a decentralized network that anonymizes users' web traffic by encrypting it and routing it through a series of relays before it reaches its final destination.
Total Exchange Volume
Total exchange volume is a measure of the total value that has been traded on an exchange(s).
Total Supply
The total amount of coins in existence right now, minus any coins that have been verifiably burned. (See Circulating Supply and Max Supply)
Total Value Locked (TVL)
Total value locked represents the number of assets that are currently being staked in a specific protocol.
Trade Volume
Trade volume refers to the total number of shares (or tokens/coins) that have been exchanged between buyers and sellers of a given asset during trading hours of a certain day.
Trading Bot
A crypto trading bot is a program designed to automate cryptocurrency asset trading on behalf of the trader.
Trading Tournament
Trading tournaments are unique crypto trading campaigns organized by cryptocurrency exchanges, encouraging users to trade more to win incentives such as tokens, hardware wallets, and more.
Trading Volume
Trading volume refers to the total amount of cryptocurrency that has been traded in the last 24 hours.
TradingView is an online web-based platform that provides investors and traders with a user-friendly interface to analyze financial markets using charts and technical indicators.
Transaction (TX)
A transaction (TX) is the act of exchanging cryptocurrencies on a blockchain.
Transaction Fee
A transaction fee is a payment for using the blockchain to transact.
Transaction ID (TXID)
A transaction ID (TXID) is the unique identification number of each blockchain transaction.
Transaction Triggers
Triggers can be set up on a blockchain to group various transactions together and execute them when the designated conditions are met.
Transactions Per Second (TPS)
Transactions per second (TPS) is a measure of a computer system's (or network's) capacity to perform transactions or calculations in a second.
TRC10 is a technological token standard that does not require the TRON Virtual Machine and is backed by the TRON blockchain network (TVM).
TRC-20 Token
The TRC-20 token standard allows for tokens to be created on the TRON network.
Treasury Bills (T-Bills)
Treasury bills (T-Bills) are short-term U.S. government debt obligations.
Treasury Bond (T-Bond)
A treasury bond is a debt security issued by the United States government that is backed by the "full faith and credit" of the U.S. Treasury Department.
A trojan is a type of malware that is often disguised as legitimate software.
For blockchains using EVM, Truffle acts as a development environment and a testing framework, widely used for blockchain application development.
Trust is a fiduciary relationship in which one party, known as a trustor, gives another party, the trustee, the right to hold title to property or assets for the benefit of a third party, the beneficiary.
Trust Wallet
Trust Wallet is crypto wallet software that gives its users complete ownership of their crypto funds.
Trustless refers to an environment where there is no centralized authority.
A tumbler is a mixing service that helps make cryptocurrency funds and transactions more anonymous.
Turing Completeness
Turing completeness refers to the capability of a system or programming language to solve any problem that can be solved by a machine, as proposed by mathematician Alan Turing.
A Turing-complete system is one that, in principle, could be able to solve any computation problem.
Two-Factor Authentication (2FA)
Two-factor authentication (2FA) is a method of access that requires two different forms of authentication.
Type Checking
Type checking is a process in programming languages to verify whether each operation in the program is in accordance with the type declaration rules of the language.
TypeScript Programming Language
TypeScript is a programming language that extends JavaScript with more functionality.
Typosquatting is a deceptive practice used by scammers to trick people into entering a counterfeit website and compromising their private information.


The term "unbanked" refers to individuals who are either unable to access banking services or choose not to do so.
Uncle Block (Ommer Block)
An Uncle Block (Ommer Block) refers to the discarded block in the phenomenon when two blocks are simultaneously created, resulting in one block being omitted from the blockchain.
Unconfirmed describes the state of a transaction that has not yet been appended to the blockchain.
UNI Token
The UNI Token is the native governance token of Uniswap, the largest decentralized exchange at the time of writing.
Unit of Account
A unit of account is a standardized unit of measurement used in accounting to record and track financial transactions.
United States House Committee on Financial Services
The United States House Committee on Financial Services is a committee of the United States House of Representatives that oversees all components of the US’s financial and housing services.
Unpermissioned Ledger
An unpermissioned ledger is a public ledger that is open to anyone without being controlled by a single owner.
Unrealized Profit & Loss
Unrealized profit and loss occur when you have a position open in a security that has appreciated or depreciated in value.
Something that isn’t controlled by a centralized authority or a governing institution is considered unregulated.
Unspent Transaction Output (UTXO)
Unspent Transaction Output (UTXO) refers to a transaction that remains unspent after being completed, similar to leftover change after making a purchase.
Unstoppable Domains
Unstoppable Domains is the name of a San Francisco-based company that provides blockchain-based domain names to users.
US Office of Foreign Assets Control (OFAC)
The US Office of Foreign Assets Control (OFAC) is a financial intelligence and enforcement agency of the US Treasury Department.
Use Case
A use case is a description of the interactions between an actor (human or system) and a system that leads to an event.
User Interface
The user interface (UI) is the user’s interaction with a website or application using a digital device.
UTC Time
Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) is the primary time standard by which the world regulates clocks and time.
Utility Mining
Utility mining is a mechanism that allows for the distribution of tokens based on user activity and active participation, enabling crypto projects to distribute flexible yields attached to specific on-chain interactions.
Utility Token
Utility tokens are tokens specifically designed to help people use something.


A validator is a participant on a proof-of-stake (PoS) blockchain, involved in validating blocks for rewards.
Vanity Address
A vanity address is a cryptocurrency public address with custom letters and numbers, usually chosen by its owner.
Vaporware refers to a cryptocurrency project that is never actually developed.
Venture Capital
Venture capital is a form of private equity provided to fund small, early-stage firms considered to have high growth potential.
Verification Code
A verification code is a security protection method used to prevent internet bots from abusing or spamming various online services.
Vesting Period
The vesting period is the act of restricting the sale of a token for a particular period of time.
Virgin Bitcoin
Virgin Bitcoin refers to Bitcoin that has never been spent.
Virtual Automated Market Makers (vAMMs)
Virtual Automated Market Makers (vAMMs) are systems that provide synthetic (or virtual) liquidity, allowing traders to buy and sell derivatives entirely on the blockchain.
Virtual Commodity Association (VCA)
The Virtual Commodity Association (VCA) is a non-profit organization of cryptocurrency exchanges and custodians aimed at building a self-regulatory organization (SRO) for the U.S. virtual currency industry.
Virtual Private Network (VPN)
A virtual private network (VPN) is a technology that creates a secure and encrypted network from a public internet connection, providing anonymity and privacy.
Virtual Reality (VR)
Virtual reality (VR) technology is used to simulate an immersive artificial world that can mimic or transcend reality.
A virus infects computers when a user unknowingly installs it via a downloaded file.
Vitalik Buterin
Vitalik Buterin is one of the creators of Ethereum, the second-largest cryptocurrency after Bitcoin.
Volatility is a statistical measure of dispersion of returns, typically measured using the standard deviation or variance between returns from the same security or market index.
Volume refers to how much cryptocurrency has been traded over a set period, such as the past 24 hours.


A wallet serves as a digital storage space where cryptocurrency users can securely store, send, and receive digital assets.
Wallstreetbets (WSB)
Wallstreetbets (WSB), also known as /r/wallstreetbets, is a subreddit where participants engage in discussions about stock and options trading.
WannaCry Ransomware
WannaCry is a type of ransomware known for its ability to rapidly infect and spread through various computer networks.
Wasabi Wallet
Wasabi Wallet is an open-source and privacy-focused Bitcoin wallet available for Windows, Linux, and macOS.
Wash Trade
Wash trading is a form of market manipulation wherein investors artificially create activity in the market by simultaneously selling and buying the same cryptocurrencies.
Watchdog Organization
Watchdog organizations are non-profit entities dedicated to critically monitoring the activities of governments or other entities on behalf of the public.
Watcher (OMG Foundation)
A Watcher on OMG Foundation is a computer tasked with observing the child chain and block producer to ensure that network transactions are correctly confirmed.
A watchlist is a feature on websites where users can create lists of cryptocurrencies they wish to monitor closely.
Weak Hands
Weak hands refer to investors who are prone to panic selling at the first sign of a price decline.
Web 1.0
Web 1.0 refers to the early version of the internet characterized by static web pages and limited user interaction.
Web 2.0
Web 2.0 describes the current state of the internet, which emphasizes user-generated content and enhanced interactivity.
Web 3.0
Web 3.0 represents the next generation of the internet, focusing on decentralized protocols and applications.
Web3 Foundation
The Web3 Foundation is an organization established to support the development of new technologies and applications in the field of decentralized web software protocols.
WebSocket facilitates two-way communication between a client (e.g., web browser) and a server, enabling real-time data exchange.
Wei is the smallest fraction of an Ether, with each Ether equivalent to 1000000000000000000 Wei.
A whale is a term used to describe investors who hold unusually large amounts of cryptocurrency, often with the ability to influence market movements.
What Is the Financial Crimes Enforcement Network (FinCEN)?
The Financial Crimes Enforcement Network (FinCEN) is a bureau of the U.S. Treasury Department responsible for analyzing financial transactions to prevent financial crimes.
When Lambo
"When Lambo" is a phrase used humorously in the cryptocurrency community to express the desire to become wealthy enough to afford a Lamborghini.
When Moon
"When Moon" is a phrase used in the cryptocurrency community to inquire about when the price of cryptocurrencies will significantly increase.
White Hat Computer Hacker
White hat hackers are ethical hackers who use their skills to improve security by identifying and fixing vulnerabilities before malicious hackers exploit them.
White Label
White labeling allows companies to customize existing products and services to rebrand and resell them as their own.
White Label Staking
White label staking involves crypto holders having their validator nodes created specifically for them and managed entirely by a third-party operator.
White Swan Event
A white swan event is an easily predictable event anticipated based on current information and forecasting.
A whitelist is a list of interested participants in an initial coin offering (ICO) who have registered their intent to participate in the sale.
A whitepaper is a document released by a cryptocurrency project providing technical information about its concept and a roadmap for its development.
Winding Down
Winding down refers to the process of unwrapping tokens back to their original form in decentralized finance (DeFi).
Winding Up
Winding up in decentralized finance (DeFi) involves wrapping crypto tokens through various projects to find the best yield.


x86 Virtual Machine (Qtum)
The x86 Virtual Machine enables developers on the Qtum platform to write smart contracts in a language of their choice.
XBT is an alternative ticker symbol for Bitcoin.
XRP is the cryptocurrency of RippleNet, a blockchain-based payment network founded by Ripple Labs in 2012.


Yield Curve
The yield curve is a graphical representation of the relationship between yields and maturities of fixed-income securities.
Yield Farming
Yield farming involves earning interest by participating in decentralized finance (DeFi) markets.
Yield Sensitivity
Yield sensitivity, or interest rate sensitivity, measures how much the price of a fixed-income asset changes due to fluctuations in interest rates.
YTD stands for Year to Date, indicating the period from the beginning of the current calendar year to the present date.


Zero Confirmation Transaction
A zero confirmation transaction, also known as an unconfirmed transaction, refers to an exchange that has not yet been recorded or verified on the blockchain.
Zero Knowledge Proof
A zero knowledge proof is a cryptographic method that enables one party to prove the truth of a statement without revealing any additional information beyond the validity of the statement itself.
Zero Knowledge Rollup
A zero knowledge rollup is a type of layer 2 scaling solution for blockchains that relies on zero-knowledge cryptography.
Zero-Knowledge Proof
In cryptography, a zero-knowledge proof allows one party to prove knowledge of certain information without revealing that information itself.
Zk-SNARKs are succinct non-interactive arguments of knowledge, enabling one party to prove the possession of certain information without revealing the information itself.
zkApps leverage zero-knowledge proofs (ZKPs), such as zk-SNARKs and zk-STARKs, to enable new possibilities beyond traditional blockchain applications.
zkOracles utilize zero-knowledge proofs (ZKPs) as a trustless medium for securely passing data while maintaining privacy and cost-efficiency.
zkSharding reintroduces the concept of sharded execution layers to Ethereum, scaling blockchains with parallelized execution within shards secured via zkEVM proofs.

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